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Energy Resources, Utilization & Technologies


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Table of Contents

Introduction - Energy Fundamental Concepts, Sources and Utilization
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Energy Cycle of the Earth
1.3 Scientific Concepts of Energy
1.3.1 Different Forms of Energy
1.3.2 Properties of Energy
1.3.3 Energy Sinks
1.3.4 Energy Units
1.4 Classification of Energy Resources
1.4.1 Nonrenewable Energy Sources
1.4.2 Renewable Energy Sources
1.5 Availability of Global Nonrenewable Energy Resources
1.6 Trends of Global Energy Usage
1.6.1 Energy Consumption by Energy Type
1.6.2 Fuel Wise Usage Nonrenewable Energy Sources by Various Countries
1.6.3 Energy Consumption by Sector
1.7 Mix of Utilization Energy Resources
1.7.1 Energy Resources and their Utilization - USA
1.7.2 Energy Resources and their Utilization - India
1.8 Energy Parameters for National Developmental Planning
1.8.1 Energy Intensity
1.8.2 Energy/GDP Ratio
1.8.3 Energy Planning
1.8.4 India-Energy - GDP - Elasticity
1.9 Environmental Effects of Energy Usage
1.9.1 Climate Change - Greenhouse Gas (CO2) Emissions from Energy Usage
1.10 Renewable Energy Sources and their Importance
1.10.1 Environmental Effects of Renewable Energy Resources
Multiple Choice Questions

Solar Energy
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristics of Solar Radiation
2.3 Extra Terrestrial Radiation
2.3.1 Spectral Distribution
2.3.2 The Changing Terrestrial Solar Spectrum
2.3.3 Power Density and Solar Constant
2.3.4 Solar Constant (So)
2.3.5 Solar Energy Potential
2.4 Solar Radiation Distribution over the Earth's Surface
2.4.1 Solar Geometry: Sun-Earth Geometric Relationship
2.4.2 Angle of Declination
2.4.3 Geographic Distribution of Solar Radiation
2.4.4 Solar Energy: Indian Scenario
2.5 Solar Radiation Measurement Instruments
2.5.1 Full-Sky Instruments
2.5.2 Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP)
2.5.3 Direct Sunlight Instruments
2.5.4 Broadband Detectors
2.6 Solar Energy Technologies
2.6.1 Solar Thermal Power and Its Conversion
2.6.2 Flat Plate Collector
2.6.3 Energy Balance Equation and Flat Plate Collector Efficiency
2.6.4 Testing the Efficiency of a Collector
2.6.5 Loss Coefficient of Flat Plate Collectors
2.7 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems
2.7.1 Types of Concentrating Collectors
2.7.2 Parabolic Dish System
2.7.3 Solar Collectors' Efficiency
2.7.4 Acceptance Angle
2.7.5 Thermodynamic Limits of Concentration (Max Achievable Temperature
2.7.6 The Central Power Tower System
2.7.7 The Parabolic Trough System
2.7.8 Tracking CPC and Solar Swing
2.7.9 Tubular Solar Energy Collectors
2.7.10 Major Parabolic Trough Collector Power Plants
2.8 Solar Energy Storage Methods
2.8.1 Thermal Storage Integrated with CSP
2.8.2 Solar Pond
2.8.3 Battery Storage for Solar Energy
2.8.4 Other Solar Energy Storage Solutions
2.9 Solar Energy Applications
2.9.1 Solar Water Heating
2.9.2 Solar Distillation
2.9.3 Solar Pumping
2.9.4 Solar Cooking
2.9.5 Solar Energy for Heating, Cooling and Ventilation
2.10 Solar Thermal Power
2.10.1 Thermoelectric Technology
2.10.2 Thermionic Technology
2.10.3 Magneto Hydrodynamic (MHD) Technology
2.10.4 Alkali-metal Thermoelectric Technology
2.11 Photovoltaic Effect
2.11.1 Photovoltaic Cells
2.11.2 Photovoltaic Materials
2.11.3 How Semiconductor Materials Work in a Solar Cell
2.11.4 Effect of Light on Silicon
2.11.5 Potential Barrier
2.11.6 The Negative-Carrier (Donor) Dopant
2.11.7 The Positive-Carrier (Acceptor) Dopant
2.11.8 The Junction
2.11.9 The Potential Barrier in Action
2.11.10 Band Theory for Electron Behavior in Solids
2.11.11 Types of Semiconductor Materials
2.11.12 Semiconductor Junctions for Solar Cell Devices
2.11.13 Physical Form of Semiconductor Materials Used for PV Cells
2.11.14 Light Absorption by a Semiconductor in a Solar Cell
2.11.15 Current in a PV Cell
2.11.16 Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Cell
2.11.17 Concentrator Cells
2.11.18 Application of Photovoltaics
Problem Solving

Biomass Energy
3.1 Photosynthesis
3.2 Biomass and Biomass Energy
3.3 The Potential of Biomass Energy .
3.3.1 Biomass Conversion Routes
3.3.2 Classifications of Biomass Conversion Technologies
3.4 Biogas
3.4.1 What is Biogas?
3.4.2 Uses of Biogas
3.4.3 Biogas and the Global Carbon Cycle
3.4.4 Biogas Production and Process Microbiology
3.4.5 Anaerobic Digestion (AD)
3.4.6 Important Characteristics of Biogas as a Fuel
3.4.7 Biogas Plant Technology
3.4.8 Application of Anaerobic Digestion for Municipal Waste Water Treatment and Biogas Production
3.4.9 Storage/Transport of Biogas for Combined Heat and Power Applications (CHP)
3.5 Biomass Gasification Process
3.5.1 Theory of Gasification
3.5.2 Gasification Mechanism
3.5.3 Producer Gas and Syngas
3.5.4 Air Requirement for the Gasification Process
3.5.5 Gasifiers and their Mechanism of Function
3.5.6 Properties of Producer Gas
3.5.7 Gasifier Fuel Characteristics
3.5.8 Gasification for Power Generation
3.6 Future Biomass Combustion Technologies
3.6.1 Biomass Pyrolysis
3.6.2 Biomass Cogeneration
3.7 Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste
3.7.1 Basic Techniques of Energy Recovery
3.7.2 Parameters Affecting Energy Recovery
3.7.3 Assessment of Energy Recovery Potential
3.7.4 Technological Options
3.8 Energy Plantation
3.8.1 Energy Plantation as Global Renewable Energy Resource
3.8.2 Social Forestry
3.8.3 Silviculture Energy Farms
3.9 Environmental Impacts of Biomass Energy Systems
3.9.1 Environmental Risks and Benefits
3.10 Biomass Resource Development in India
3.10.1 Biomass Energy Policies and Programs
3.10.2 Technological Advancement in Biomass Energy

Wind Energy
4.1 Properties of Wind
4.2 Wind Energy
4.2.1 Global Potential of Wind Energy
4.2.2 Availability of Wind Energy in India
4.3 Wind Velocity and Winds Energy
4.3.1 The Wind Resource
4.3.2 Weibull Distribution
4.4 Wind Machine Fundamentals
4.4.1 Principles of Wind Energy Conversion
4.4.2 Types of Wind Machines and their Characteristics
4.4.3 Windmill Performance
4.5 Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Mills
4.5.1 Design Aspects of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT)
4.5.2 Design Aspects of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)
4.5.3 Wind Turbine Site Selection
4.5.4 Wind Power vs. Tower Height
4.6 Wind Energy Farms
4.7 Wind Power Economics
4.7.1 Cost and Operating Characteristics of Wind Power
4.7.2 Wind Mill Operation and System Integration Issues
4.8 Recent Technology Developments
4.8.1 AC-DC-AC Converters
4.8.2 Hybrid Wind, Battery, and Diesel Systems
4.9 Environmental Impacts of Wind Power

Ocean Energy
5.1 Ocean Energy Fundamental Concepts
5.2 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
5.2.1 Principles and Systems
5.2.2 Global Locations with Favorable Ocean Thermal Gradient for OTEC Systems
5.2.3 Different OTEC Systems for Power Generation
5.2.4 Location of OTEC System
5.2.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of OTEC Systems
5.2.6 Environmental Impacts of OTEC Systems
5.2.7 OTEC Potential in India
5.3 Wave Energy, Conversion Machines, Power Plants based on Ocean Energy
5.3.1 Ocean Waves
5.3.2 Potential of Wave Energy
5.3.3 Estimation of Wave Energy Potential in India
5.3.4 Wave Climate
5.3.5 Wave Energy Calculations
5.3.6 Assessment of Wave Energy and Power
5.3.7 Energy and Power Density
5.3.8 Power per Meter of Wave Front
5.3.9 Energy at Varying Depths
5.3.10 Wave Power for Electricity Generation
5.4 Economics of Ocean Energy and Power Unit Cost of Different Technologies
5.5 Tidal Power
5.5.1 Basic Scientific Concepts of Tides and Tidal Power
5.5.2 Tidal Force
5.5.3 Tidal Energy
5.6 The Kyoto Protocol and the Relevance of Exploration of Ocean Energy
5.7 Ocean Energy Options for Indian economy

Geothermal Energy
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Structure of the Earth's Interior
6.3 Geothermal sites
6.3.1 Global Geothermal Sites
6.3.2 Geosites in India
6.4 Earthquakes and Volcanoes
6.4.1 Converging Plate Boundaries
6.4.2 Divergence Plate Boundaries
6.4.3 Conservative Plate Boundaries
6.5 Geothermal Resources
6.5.1 Natural Hydrothermal Reservoirs
6.5.2 Geopressured Reservoirs
6.5.3 Hot Dry Rock (HDR)
6.5.4 Ultra Low-grade Systems
6.6 Hot Springs
6.7 Steam Ejection
6.7.1 Basic Thermodynamics of Geothermal Processes
6.7.2 Geothermal Energy of Dry Rock
6.7.3 Geothermal Energy of Hot Aquifers
6.8 The Principle of the Working of Geothermal Plants
6.8.1 Power Plant Efficiency
6.8.2 Geothermal Plant Design Considerations
6.9 Types of Geothermal Station Schematic Representation
6.9.1 Dry-Steam Power Plants
6.9.2 Flash-Steam Power Plants
6.9.3 Binary Power Plants
6.10 Site Selection for Geothermal Power Plants
6.11 Advanced Concepts
6.11.1 Non-Electrical Applications
6.11.2 Geothermal Heat Pumps
6.11.3 Estimated U.S. Geothermal Resources
6.11.4 Worldwide Geothermal Capacities
6.11.5 Geothermal Efforts in India
6.12 Problems Associated with Geothermal Conversion
Problem Solving

Hydrogen Energy
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Properties of Hydrogen in Respect of its Use as Source of Renewable Energy
7.2.1 Physical Properties
7.2.2 Chemical and Combustion Properties
7.3 Sources of Hydrogen
7.4 Production of Hydrogen
7.4.1 Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)
7.4.2 Electrolysis
7.4.3 Gasification of Biomass
7.4.4 Nuclear based Hydrogen Production
7.5 Storage and Transportation
7.5.1 Storage
7.5.2 Transportation
7.6 Problems with Hydrogen as Fuel
7.7 Development of Hydrogen Cartridge
7.8 Economics of Hydrogen Fuel and its Use
Problem Solving

Fuel Cells
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Principle of Operation of an Acidic Fuel Cell
8.2.1 Design of a Typical Fuel Cell
8.2.2 Efficiency and EMF of Fuel Cells
8.3 Reusable Cells, Ideal Fuel Cells
8.4 Types of Fuel Cells
8.4.1 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC)
8.4.2 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
8.4.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
8.4.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
8.4.5 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs)
8.5 Comparison Between Acidic and Alkaline Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cells
8.6 Conversion of Chemical Energy and Efficiency
8.6.1 Part-Load Characteristics
8.6.2 Response Time
8.6.3 Emissions
8.7 Esthetics
8.7.1 Miscellaneous Characteristics
8.8 Fuel Cell Power Plants
8.8.1 Advantages of Fuel Cell Power Plants
8.9 Future Potential of Fuel Cells
8.9.1 USA and International Market in Fuel Cells
8.9.2 Fuel cell R and D in India
Problem Solving

Fuel Cells
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Kelvin Relations
9.3 Power Generation
9.3.1 Efficiency and Performance
9.3.2 Typical Values of a Thermoelectric Device Examples of Thermoelectric Power Generation
9.4 Properties of Thermoelectric Materials
9.4.1 Figure of Merit
9.4.2 Electrical Conductivity
9.4.3 Seebeck Coefficient
9.4.4 Thermal Conductivity
9.5 Thermoelectric Materials
9.6 Fusion Plasma Generators
Problem Solving

Nuclear Energy
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Principles of Nuclear Energy
10.3 Basic Components of Nuclear Reactions
10.4 Radioactivity and Decay
10.5 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
10.5.1 Nuclear Fusion
10.5.2 Nuclear Fission
10.6 Nuclear Fuel Consumption and Nuclear Energy Released
10.6.1 Nuclear Energy Balance and Thermodynamics
10.6.2 Nuclear Power Plant Model
10.6.3 Nuclear Fission Reactors
10.6.4 Nuclear Fuel
10.6.5 Moderator
10.6.6 Critical mass 10.7 Multiplication Factor
10.8 Conversion Ratio of a Reactor
10.9 Neutron Flux in a Nuclear Reactor
10.10 Uranium Enrichment
10.10.1 Gas Centrifuge Method
10.10.2 Gas Diffusion Method
10.10.3 Thermal Diffusion Method
10.10.4 Laser Excitation Method
10.11 Types of Nuclear Reactors
10.12 Layout of a Nuclear Power Station
10.13 Nuclear Fuel Cycle
10.14 Radiation Interactions and Dose Units and Definitions
10.15 Site Selection of a Nuclear Power Plant
10.16 Safety Measures in a Nuclear Power Plant
10.17 Nuclear Power Plant Cost and Economics 10.18 Major Nuclear Power Disasters
10.18.1 Three Mile Island
10.18.2 Chernobyl
10.18.3 Fukushima Dai-Ichi (Fukushima I)
10.18.4 Global Status of Nuclear Power
10.18.5 Nuclear Industry in USA
10.18.6 Nuclear Power in India
Problem Solving

Application of Nanotechnologies for Clean Energy
11.1 Growing Global Energy Demand - Role of Nanotechnologies
11.1.1 What is Nanotechnology?
11.1.2 Why Develop Nanotechnology for Clean Energy?
11.2 Nanotechnologies for Clean Energy
11.3 Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Energy
11.3.1 Energy Generation Process - Photovoltaics, Wind Energy, Geothermal Energy, Hydro Tidal, Biomass, Fossil Fuels, Nuclear
11.3.2 Energy Conversion
11.3.3 Energy Distribution: High Voltage Transmission, Super Conductors, CNT Power Lines, Wireless Power Transmission, Smart Grids, Heat Transfer
11.3.4 Energy Storage: Electrical Energy-Batteries, Super Capacitors, Chemical Energy Hydrogen,
Fuel Reforming/Refining, Fuel Tanks, Thermal Energy -Phase Change Materials, Adsorptive Storage
11.3.5 Energy Usage
11.4 Environmental, Safety, and Health Risks - Application of Nanotechnologies
11.5 Conclusions

About the Author

Dr. Anjaneyulu Yerramilli, Ph.D is presently working as visiting Professor in Chemistry/Environment at Jackson State University, Jackson, MS. During his career in India he amassed 35 years of research and teaching experience in Environmental/Energy technologies, 34 Ph.D students received Ph.D degrees under his supervision, he published more than 100 research papers in peer reviewed journals and presented at various international conferences. He has authored a number of books on Environmental Impact Assessment Methodologies (2011, BS Publications / CRC Press / Balkema), Introduction to Environmental Science (2005, BS Publications), and Hazardous Waste Management, Air Pollution and Control Technologies (2002, Allied Publishers). He has expertise in EIA, Energy Technologies, Risk Assessment and Air Pollution modeling. He is presently working as PI for two programs: i) a Department of Defense-sponsored program on High Performance Computation for Development of Novel Materials and ii) Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of Gulf Coast, sponsored by NOAA, and as co-PI for a NSF-sponsored program on Collaborative Research CI-TEAM Demonstration Project entitled Water HUB for Cyber Enabled Training, Education, and Research in Water Resources. He has also published a number of papers on simulation of mesoscale coastal circulation of Gulf Coast for air pollution dispersion by integrating WRF, HYSPLIT, SMOKE and CMAQ models (http://chem.jsums.edu/anjaneyulu). Dr. Francis Tuluri holds a Ph.D in Physics, and has served as Associate Professor in the Department of Technology at Jackson State University since 2001. Prior to his service in USA, he was for more than two decades a faculty member at a reputed Engineering College in India where he taught several courses in Engineering Physics, Energy, Semiconductor Physics and Devices, Electronics and Computer technology and developed teaching methods utilizing technological teaching tools for pedagogy. His areas of research include Magnetic Resonance and Imaging, Liquid Crystals Display materials and devices, polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes in fuel cells, environmental impacts of air pollution on air quality and health, and air quality modeling studies. He has published over 40 research papers in peer reviewed journals of high national and international standing. He holds certifications from NOAA and EPA in computer modeling simulations using HYSPLIT, WRF, CMAQ and SMOKE.

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