Part 1 | Insight page Useful Reference Data 1. Energy: A Truly Special Case 12 2. Energy: What Exactly Is It? 15 3. Human Energy 19 A. Heat 19 B. Work 20 C. How Do I Keep My Temperature Constant? 21 4. Domestic Energy 25 A. Domestic Energy Supply 25 B. Home Heating and Cooling 26 B1. Heat Sources 26 B2. Cooling and Air-Conditioning 29 B3. Heat Exchangers: Free Energy 31 B4. Heat Losses and Home Insulation 31 C. Hot Water 37 D. Baking and Cooking 38 E. Electric Appliances at Home 40 F. Comparison of Various Energy Users 46 G. Energy Needed to Produce Something 47 5. Moving Around: Energy and Transportation 49 A. Cars 49 B. Buses and Trains 55 C. Aircraft 57 D. The Bicycle 61 6. Energy: National and World-wide 65 A. Differences Across the Globe 65 B. Energy Use in an Industrialised Country: the Netherlands 66 C. Europe 69 D. The World: Supply and Demand 70 7. CO2 and Global Warming 75 A. Natural Greenhouse Effect 75 B. Man-made Greenhouse Effect 78 B1. The Facts 78 B2. Possible Consequences and Uncertainties 81 B3. Possible Remedies 85 B4. Economic Aspects 87 B5. Emission for Various Fuels 88 Part 2 | Outlook 8. Solar Energy 91 A. The Potential of Solar Energy 91 B. Capturing Solar Energy by Various Mechanisms 95 B1. Trees, Plants, Solar fuels, Algae, Bacteria 96 B2. Solar Heat: Passive Use and Solar Collectors 101 B3. Electricity by Photovoltaic Cells (PV) 103 B4. Electricity by Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) 109 9. Wind Power 116 A. The Potential of Wind Power 116 B. Types of Wind Turbines and Their Efficiencies 120 C. Space Demand and Wind Farms 121 D. Contribution, Variability and the Cost of Wind Power 123 10. Energy from Water and from Soil 127 A. Hydropower 127 B. Wave Energy 128 C. Tidal Energy 132 D. Temperature Differences in the Oceans (OTEC) 133 E. Osmosis: Salt and Fresh Water ('Blue Energy') 133 F. Geothermal Energy 135 11. Nuclear energy 139 A. Fission 141 A1. Current Fission Reactor Technology 141 A2. Fuel Cycle and Possible Hazards 144 A3. Present Role of Nuclear Fission World-wide 148 A4. Breeder Reactors 150 A5. Pros and Cons of Nuclear Fission 152 B. Fusion 153 B1. Potential of Nuclear Fusion 153 B2. Nuclear Fusion in Practice 153 B3. Pros and Cons of Nuclear Fusion 158 C. Radioactivity and Health Hazards 159 C1. Various Kinds of Radioactivity and Their Effects 159 C2. Half-life, Radioactivity, Doses and Hazards 162 D. Comparison of Various Ways to Generate Electricity 164 12. Energy Storage 167 A. Why Store Energy? 167 B. Various Kinds of Storage 168 B1. Electricity 168 B2. Heat 170 B3. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier 171 Epilogue: How to proceed? 179
Jo Hermans is professor emeritus of physics at Leiden University.