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Environmental Chemistry


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Table of Contents

The Environment and Sustainability Science

From the Sun to Fossil Fuels and Back Again

The Science of Sustainability

Chemistry and the Environment

Water, Air, Earth, Life, and Technology

Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and the Biosphere

Energy and Cycles of Energy

Human Impact and Pollution

Chemical Fate and Transport

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Geosphere

Environmental Mischief and Terrorism

Environmental Forensics

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Chemistry and the Anthrosphere: Environmental Chemistry and Green Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry

Matter and Cycles of Matter

Anthrosphere and Environmental Chemistry

Technology and the Anthrosphere


Components of the Anthrosphere That Infl uence the Environment

Effects of the Anthrosphere on Earth

Integration of the Anthrosphere into the Total Environment

Green Chemistry

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry

Importance of Water

Water from Molecules to Oceans

Characteristics of Bodies of Water

Aquatic Life

Introduction to Aquatic Chemistry

Gases in Water

Water Acidity and Carbon Dioxide in Water


Calcium and other Metals in Water

Complexation and Chelation

Bonding and Structure of Metal Complexes

Calculations of Species Concentrations

Complexation by Deprotonated Ligands

Complexation by Protonated Ligands

Solubilization of Lead Ion from Solids by NTA

Polyphosphates and Phosphonates in Water

Complexation by Humic Substances

Complexation and Redox Processes

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Oxidation-Reduction in Aquatic Chemistry

The Signifi cance of Oxidation-Reduction

Electron and Redox Reactions

Electron Activity and pE

The Nernst Equation

Reaction Tendency: Whole Reaction from Half-Reactions

The Nernst Equation and Chemical Equilibrium

The Relationship of pE to Free Energy

Reactions in Terms of One Electron-Mole

The Limits of pE in Water

pE Values in Natural Water Systems

pE-pH Diagrams

Humic Substances as Natural Reductants

Photochemical Processes in Oxidation-Reduction


Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Phase Interactions in Aquatic Chemistry

Chemical Interactions Involving Solids, Gases, and Water

Importance and Formation of Sediments


Colloidal Particles in Water

Colloidal Properties of Clays

Aggregation of Particles

Surface Sorption by Solids

Solute Exchange with Bottom Sediments

Interstitial Water

Phase Interactions in Chemical Fate and Transport

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Aquatic Microbial Biochemistry

Aquatic Biochemical Processes





The Prokaryotic Bacterial Cell

Kinetics of Bacterial Growth

Bacterial Metabolism

Microbial Transformations of Carbon

Biodegradation of Organic Matter

Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen

Microbial Transformations of Phosphorus and Sulfur

Microbial Transformations of Halogens and Organohalides

Microbial Transformations of Metals and Metalloids

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Water Pollution

Nature and Types of Water Pollutants

Elemental Pollutants

Heavy Metals


Organically Bound Metals and Metalloids

Inorganic Species

Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication

Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity

Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants

Organic Pollutants

Pesticides in Water

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes

Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Water Treatment

Water Treatment and Water Use

Municipal Water Treatment

Treatment of Water for Industrial Use

Sewage Treatment

Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Removal of Solids

Removal of Calcium and Other Metals

Removal of Dissolved Organics

Removal of Dissolved Inorganics


Water Disinfection

Natural Water Purifi cation Processes

Green Water

Water Conservation

Protecting Water Supplies from Attack

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Chemistry

The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Chemistry

Importance of the Atmosphere

Physical Characteristics of the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Atmospheric Mass Transfer, Meteorology, and Weather

Inversions and Air Pollution

Global Climate and Microclimate

Chemical and Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere

Acid-Base Reactions in the Atmosphere

Reactions of Atmospheric Oxygen

Reactions of Atmospheric Nitrogen

Atmospheric Water

Influence of the Anthrosphere

Chemical Fate and Transport in the Atmosphere

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Particles in the Atmosphere

Particles in the Atmosphere

Physical Behavior of Particles in the Atmosphere

Physical Processes for Particle Formation

Chemical Processes for Particle Formation

The Composition of Inorganic Particles

Toxic Metals in the Atmosphere

Radioactive Particles

The Composition of Organic Particles

Effects of Particles

Water as Particulate Matter

Atmospheric Chemical Reactions Involving Particles

Control of Particulate Emissions

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Gaseous Inorganic Air Pollutants

Inorganic Pollutant Gases

Production and Control of Carbon Monoxide

Fate of Atmospheric CO

Sulfur Dioxide Sources and the Sulfur Cycle

Sulfur Dioxide Reactions in the Atmosphere

Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere

Acid Rain

Ammonia in the Atmosphere

Fluorine, Chlorine, and their Gaseous Compounds

Reduced Sulfur Gases

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions And Problems

Organic Air Pollutants

Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Biogenic Organic Compounds

Pollutant Hydrocarbons

Carbonyl Compounds: Aldehydes and Ketones

Miscellaneous Oxygen-Containing Compounds

Organonitrogen Compounds

Organohalide Compounds

Organosulfur Compounds

Organic Particulate Matter

Hazardous Air Pollutants Organic Compounds

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Photochemical Smog


Smog-Forming Emissions

Smog-Forming Reactions of Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Overview of Smog Formation

Mechanisms of Smog Formation

Reactivity of Hydrocarbons

Inorganic Products from Smog

Effects of Smog

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

The Endangered Global Atmosphere

Climate Change and Anthropogenic Effects

Global Warming

Green Science and Technology to Alleviate Global Warming

Acid Rain

Stratospheric Ozone Destruction

Atmospheric Brown Clouds

Atmospheric Damage by Photochemical Smog

Nuclear Winter

What Is to Be Done?

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

The Geosphere and Geochemistry


The Nature of Solids in the Geosphere

Physical Form of the Geosphere

Internal Processes




Groundwater in the Geosphere

Environmental Aspects of the Geosphere



Surface Earth Movement

Stream and River Phenomena

Phenomena at the Land/Ocean Interface

Phenomena at the Land/Atmosphere Interface

Effects of Ice

Effects of Human Activities

Air Pollution and the Geosphere

Water Pollution and the Geosphere

Waste Disposal and the Geosphere

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Soil and Agricultural Environmental Chemistry

Soil and Agriculture

Nature and Composition of Soil

Acid Base and Ion-Exchange Reactions in Soils

Macronutrients in Soil

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Soil


Pollutants from Livestock Production

Pesticides and their Residues in Soil

Wastes and Pollutants in Soil

Soil Loss and Degradation

Saving the Land

Genetic Engineering and Agriculture

Green Chemistry and Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculture and Health

Protecting the Food Supply from Attack

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Green Chemistry and Industrial Ecology

Changing the Bad Old Ways

Green Chemistry

Reduction of Risk: Hazard and Exposure

Waste Prevention and Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry and Synthetic Chemistry



Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reagents

Media and Solvents

Enhancing Reactions

Industrial Ecology

The Five Major Components of an Industrial Ecosystem

Industrial Metabolism

Materials Flow and Recycling in an Industrial Ecosystem

The Kalundborg Industrial Ecosystem

Consideration of Environmental Impacts in Industrial Ecology

Life Cycles: Expanding and Closing the Materials Loop

Life-Cycle Assessment

Consumable, Recyclable, and Service (Durable) Products

Design for Environment

Inherent Safety

Industrial Ecology and Ecological Engineering

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Resources and Sustainable Materials

Where to Get the Stuff We Need?

Minerals in the Geosphere

Extraction and Mining


Metal Resources and Industrial Ecology

Nonmetal Mineral Resources



Wood: A Major Renewable Resource

Extending Resources through the Practice of Industrial Ecology

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything

Energy Problem

Nature of Energy

Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere

Energy Devices and Conversions

Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources

Petroleum and Natural Gas


Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization

Industrial Ecology for Energy and Chemicals

Nuclear Energy

Geothermal Energy

The Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source

Energy from Moving Air and Moving Water

Biomass Energy

Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy

Combined Power Cycles

A System of Industrial Ecology for Methane Production

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Nature, Sources, and Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes


Classifi cation of Hazardous Substances and Wastes

Sources of Wastes

Flammable and Combustible Substances

Reactive Substances

Corrosive Substances

Toxic Substances

Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes

Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes

Physical and Chemical Properties of Hazardous Wastes

Transport, Effects, and Fates of Hazardous Wastes

Hazardous Wastes and the Anthrosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Geosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Hydrosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Atmosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Biosphere

Hazardous Substances in Terrorism

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Industrial Ecology for Waste Minimization, Utilization, and Treatment


Waste Reduction and Minimization


Physical Methods of Waste Treatment

Chemical Treatment: An Overview

Green Waste Treatment by Photolyis and Sonolysis

Thermal Treatment Methods

Biodegradation of Wastes


Land Treatment and Composting

Preparation of Wastes for Disposal

Ultimate Disposal of Wastes

Leachate and Gas Emissions

In Situ Treatment

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Environmental Biochemistry


Biochemistry and the Cell





Nucleic Acids

Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering

Metabolic Processes

Metabolism of Xenobiotic Compounds

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Toxicological Chemistry

Introduction to Toxicology and Toxicological Chemistry

Dose-Response Relationships

Relative Toxicities

Reversibility and Sensitivity

Xenobiotic and Endogenous Substances

Toxicological Chemistry

Kinetic Phase and Dynamic Phase

Teratogenesis, Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Effects On the Immune and Reproductive Systems

Health Hazards

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Toxicological Chemistry of Chemical Substances


Toxic Elements and Elemental Forms

Toxic Inorganic Compounds

Toxicology of Organic Compounds

Toxic Natural Products

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater

General Aspects of Environmental Chemical Analysis

Classical Methods

Spectrophotometric Methods

Electrochemical Methods of Analysis


Mass Spectrometry

Analysis of Water Samples

Automated Water Analyses


Emerging Contaminants in Water Analysis

Chiral Contaminants

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Analysis of Wastes and Solids


Sample Digestion for Elemental Analysis

Analyte Isolation for Organics Analysis

Sample Cleanup

Sample Preparation for VOCs

Bioassay and Immunoassay Screening of Wastes

Determination of Chelating Agents

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Analysis of the Atmosphere and Air Pollutants

Atmospheric Monitoring


Methods of Analysis

Determination of Sulfur Dioxide

Nitrogen Oxides

Analysis of Oxidants

Analysis of Carbon Monoxide

Determination of Hydrocarbons and Organics

Analysis of Particulate Matter

Direct Spectrophotometric Analysis of Gaseous Air Pollutants

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Analysis of Biological Materials and Xenobiotics


Indicators of Exposure to Xenobiotics

Determination of Metals

Determination of Nonmetals and Inorganic Compounds

Determination of Parent Organic Compounds

Measurement of Phase I And Phase II Reaction Products

Determination of Adducts

The Promise of Immunological Methods

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems


About the Author

Stanley E. Manahan is professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Missouri--Columbia, where he has been on the faculty since 1965. He received his AB in chemistry from Emporia State University in 1960 and his PhD in analytical chemistry from the University of Kansas in 1965. Since 1968 his primary research and professional activities have been in environmental chemistry, toxicological chemistry, and waste treatment. His classic textbook, Environmental Chemistry, has been in print continuously in various editions since 1972 and is the longest standing title on this subject in the world. His other books are Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, 3rd ed. (Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009), Fundamentals of Sustainable Chemical Science (Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009), Environmental Science and Technology, 2nd ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability, 2nd ed. (ChemChar Research, Inc, 2006), Toxicological Chemistry and Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, 2001), Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste (CRC Press/Lewis Publishers, 1999), Environmental Science and Technology (CRC Press/ Lewis Publishers, 1997), Hazardous Waste Chemistry, Toxicology and Treatment (Lewis Publishers, 1992), Quantitative Chemical Analysis (Brooks/Cole, 1986), and General Applied Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Willard Grant Press, 1982). Dr. Manahan has lectured on the topics of environmental chemistry, toxicological chemistry, waste treatment, and green chemistry throughout the United States as an American Chemical Society Local Section Tour Speaker and has presented plenary lectures on these topics in international meetings in Puerto Rico; the University of the Andes in Merida, Venezuela; Hokkaido University in Japan; the National Autonomous University in Mexico City; France; and Italy. He was the recipient of the Year 2000 Award of the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Italian Chemical Society. His research specialty is gasification of hazardous wastes.

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