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Environmental Hydrology, Third Edition


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Table of Contents

The Hydrologic Cycle, Water Resources, and Society

The Water, Food, Industry, Population Growth Nexus

The Hydrologic Cycle

Water Resources in the United States

The Importance of Hydrology to Society

Modeling the Hydrologic Cycle

Hydrologic Data Analysis

Advantages and Disadvantages of Modeling Data

Typical Model Architecture

Problems Precipitation Introduction Causes of Precipitation Precipitation Events Measurement of Precipitation Storm Time Trends Average Precipitation over an Area Rainfall Frequency Distributions Probability of an Event Occurring Rainfall Erosivity Climate Change and Uncertainty Problems Infiltration and Soil Water Processes Introduction Soil Water Relationships Infiltration and Soil Water Retention Factors Affecting Water Movement into and through Soils Soil Water Balance Estimating Infiltration Rates Perspective on Infiltration Methods Measurement of Soil Properties Problems Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration Introduction Evaporation Process Evapotranspiration From Soil and Plants Measuring Evaporation or Evapotranspiration Weather Data Sources and Preparation Estimating Evaporation and Evapotranspiration Advances in Estimating Crop Evapotranspiration Evapotranspiration and Soil Water Budgets in Space and Time Using Evapotranspiration Data and Management Strategies Problems Runoff and Drainage Introduction Factors Affecting Runoff Processes Watershed Factors that Affect Runoff Runoff Characteristics: The Hydrograph Predicting Volume of Stormflow and Total Runoff Prediction of Peak Runoff Rate Stormwater Hydrographs Assessment and Application of Flood Estimation Techniques Agricultural Land Drainage Modifications Determining Subsurface Drainage Flows Flow Duration and Water Yield Planning for Low Flow Water Shortages Runoff Characteristics-Pollutograph Problems Stream Processes Introduction Interaction of Streams with the Landscape Stream Orders Stream Biota Stream Characteristics Stream Stability and Sediment Transport Meander Migration, Floodplains, and Streamways Stream Classification Channel Evolution What to Measure and Why the Measurement Should Be Made Some Other Important Factors Stream Restoration Problems Uniform Open Channel Flow Introduction Flow Velocity and Discharge Grassed Waterways Compound Channels Two-Stage Agricultural Ditches and Canals Other Compound Channel Applications Modifying, Managing, and Enhancing Constructed Channel Problems Hydraulic Control Structures Introduction Specific Energy and Critical Discharge Riffles, Pools and Runs (Based on Newbury et al, 2011 with permission from the American Geophysical Union) Weirs, Flumes, and Culverts Backwater Analysis Rock Structures Sizing Rock Routing flows through Channels and Rivers Routing flow through Reservoirs Problems Soil Conservation and Sediment Budgets Introduction Factors Affecting Erosion by Water Types of Erosion Estimating Soil Loss and Soil Loss Tolerance Universal Soil Loss Equation Nonagricultural Applications of the USLE Downstream Sediment Yields Single-Event Sediment Yields Sediment Budget Concepts Sediment Storage in Large Reservoirs Problems (Note: The first 7 problems relate to Equation 9.1) Hydrology of Forests, Wetlands, and Cold Climates Introduction How are Forests Different? Forest Climates: Rain and Snow Interception: Rain, Snow, and Fog Energy Balance in Forests Evapotranspiration Snowmelt Infiltration Subsurface Flow (Interflow) Surface Runoff Streamflow and Watershed Hydrology Erosion: Sediment Budget Deforestation, Fires, and Silviculture Rangelands and Grazing Wetlands Problems Hydrogeology Introduction Characterization of Groundwater Flow Groundwater Flow Patterns and Stream Interaction Flow to Wells Capture Zones of Wells Fracture Flow Groundwater Vulnerability Problems Human Impacts on Water Resources: Prevention and Treatment Strategies Introduction Human Impacts on Stream Health Flood Forecasting and Management Urban Impacts Conundrum of Understanding Discharge Frequency Reducing Runoff from Urban Areas Detention and Retention Ponds Agricultural Impacts on Water Quality Agricultural Water Quality Best Management Practices Landfills Problems Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Hydrologic Applications Introduction Products Parts of the Spectrum and Radiation Characteristics Data Types and Databases Remote Sensing Characteristics of Water Applications Practical Exercises on Conducting and Reporting Hydrologic Studies Introduction Conducting a Hydrologic Study Reporting a Hydrologic Study Report Contents General Guidelines for Preparing Exercise Reports Exercise 14.1: Precipitation (See Theory in Chapter 2) Exercise 14.2: Evaporation (See Theory in Chapter 4) Exercise 14.3: Runoff (See Theory in Chapter 5) Exercise 14.4: Flow Duration (See Theory in Chapter 5) Exercise 14.5: Storm Runoff, Totals, and Peaks (See Theory in Chapter 5) Exercise 14.6: Erosion and Elementary Sediment Routing (See Theory in Chapter 9) Exercise 14.7: Streamflow Measurement in the Field (See Theory in Chapter 7) Exercise 14.8: Watershed or Drainage Basin Morphology (See Theory in 6) Exercise 14.9: The Practical use of Soil Surveys for Environmental Management The Practical use of Soils Maps for Management References Appendices Index

About the Author

Andy D. Ward, Ph.D, is a professor in the Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University and has been a member of the faculty since 1986. In 1971, he obtained a B.Sc. in civil engineering from Imperial College, London, England. In 1977 and 1981, Dr. Ward obtained an M.S. and Ph.D. respectively in agricultural engineering from the University of Kentucky. He has authored more than 100 manuscripts and co-authored a paper that received the 1994 Autometric Award from the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for the best interpretation of remote sensing data. Stanley W. Trimble, Ph.D, is professor emeritus in the Department of Geography at UCLA and has been a member of the faculty since 1975. In 1963, he received a B.S. in chemistry from the University of North Alabama. He earned his M.A. (1970) and Ph.D. (1973) in geography at the University of Georgia. Dr .Trimble was a research hydrologist with the US Geological Survey from 1973-84, and a visiting professor at the Universities of Chicago (1978, 1981, 1990), Vienna (1994, 1999), Oxford (1995), London (University College, 1985), and Durham (1998). He has published more than 100 research publications. Suzette R. Burckhard, PhD, PE is a professor in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department in the Jerome J. Lohr College of Engineering at South Dakota State University (SDSU), Brookings. She has been on the faculty since 1997. Dr. Burckhard earned a BS in engineering physics and civil engineering from SDSU. She also attended Kansas State University, earning an MS in physics, an MS in chemical engineering, and a PhD in civil engineering while there. She has over 100 presentations and publications including coauthoring the 3rd place ESRI Award for Best Scientific Paper in Geographic Information Systems in 2008. John G. Lyon has conducted scientific and engineering research and administrative functions throughout his career. He is formerly the senior physical scientist in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) and Office of the Science Advisor in Washington, DC, where he co-led work on the Group on Earth Observations and the USGEO subcommittee of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, and research on geospatial issues. Lyon was director of ORD's Environmental Sciences Division for approximately eight years. He was educated at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, and the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.


"Environmental Hydrology provides a helpful introduction to some of the key processes and issues surrounding contemporary hydrology, from the description of the main components of the hydrological cycle, to human impacts and the application of remote sensing and GIS. A dedicated chapter at the end of the book that contains practical exercises provides readers with the opportunity to test their understanding of the book's content."
-Dr Simon Gosling, School of Geography, University of Nottingham, UK

"This is an updated edition (2nd ed., 2004; 1st ed., 1995) of a comprehensive introductory hydrology textbook. At over 600 pages, it covers a lot of territory. This is perhaps appropriate for a subject as broad as the water molecule, but the text's sheer size might be daunting to some. The presentation and mathematical explanations are clear, and there are quite a few worked examples and end-of-chapter problems which are logically posed. The volume takes a more broad-scale look at hydrological science than comparable works, such as S. L. Dingman's Physical Hydrology (3rd ed., 2014). Some derivations appear slightly more general than in Dingman's text, for example, in the presentation of the Penman-Monteith equation, but Ward (Ohio State) and coauthors then add pertinent material from diverse specialties. This is appropriate as hydrology can be seen as a major interdisciplinary factor linking many branches of earth and environmental science. Chapters on the fundamental physical processes behind the basic water balance equation are followed by relatively in-depth discussions of hydrological analysis as applied, for example, to specific ecosystems such as forests and high latitude regions. Next, the authors provide substantial material on such varied topics as sedimentation, human impacts, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing as they are applied to hydrology."
-CHOICE, May 2016

"Unlike many other hydrology textbooks, the authors of Environmental Hydrology make an exceptional effort of emphasize water in soil, agricultural soil and land management, and even the use of soil surveys in several of the chapters while integrating classical hydrology concepts."
-Soil Science Society of America Journal, April 2016

"Environmental Hydrology is full of useful information presented in both written and visual formats. Even in black and white, photos and figures are helpful in conveying important points to the reader. The book is packed with examples and problems drawn from the authors' professional experiences as practicing engineers and hydrologists. From an educator's perspective, the book has a nice balance between examples and problems that are straight-forward in their solution and those that require the student to make assumptions and exercise sound professional judgment, as in many "real-world" cases where not all of the inputs are given or known."
-Groundwater, September-October 2016

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