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Essentials of Biological Anthropology


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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter contains a Summary, Critical-Thinking Questions, and Suggested Readings.)

1. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Biology and Behavior.
Anthropology Studies Humankind. Subjects That Biological Anthropologists Study. The Language of Biological Anthropology. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Species. The Perspective of Human Evolution.

2. Genetics and Evolution by Natural Selection.
DNA: The Reproductive Machinery of the Cell. The DNA Molecule Evolves. The Cell Nucleus Evolves. Evolution of DNA Repair and Sexual Reproduction. Evolution of Mitosis and Meiosis. Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Development of a Theory of Inheritance. Mutation: The Source of Genetic Variation. The Puzzle of Sexual Reproduction.

3. Populations, Species, and Evolution.
Populations. How Individuals Within Populations Vary. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and Population Genetics. How Evolution Changes Population Allele Frequencies. How New Species Are Formed. Evolution of Behavior.

4. Stages of Vertebrate Evolution.
Homologous Structures. Clues from Morphology, Embryology, and Paleontology. The Chordates. The First Vertebrates: Our Fish Heritage. First Forays onto Dry Land: The Amphibians. Reptiles Conquer the Land. Mammals Evolve and Radiate. The Human Brain in Evolutionary Perspective. Mammals and Adaptive Radiation. Understanding Human Morphology.

5. Introduction to Primates: Origins and Evolution.
What Is a Primate? The First Primate Radiation: Plesiadapiforms. The Second Primate Radiation: Prosimians. Behavior and Social Organization of Prosimians. The Third Primate Radiation: Anthropoids. Origins and Evolution of the Monkeys.

6. Primates: Patterns in Social Behavior.
Field Studies. Advantages of Group Living. Development of Behavioral Modeling. Male and Female Reproductive Strategies. Primate Foraging and Feeding. Primate Defenses Against Predation. Communication. Aggression and Dominance Interactions. Birth and the Mother-Infant Bond. Learning as Adaptation to Sociality.

7. Introduction to the Hominoids.
The Living Hominoids Minus People: Apes. Proconsulids: The Earliest Hominoids. Hominoids with Thick Molar Enamel Appear. Ape Evolution in Eurasia. Evolutionary Relationships Among Hominoids.

8. Australopithecines.
Definition of Hominidae. The Earliest Hominids. What the Earliest Hominid Looked Like. Why Are Hominid Fossils Rare? The Australopithecines. Hominid Morphology and Behavior. Australopithecine Paleoecology and Behavior. Robust Australopithecines.

9. The Genus Homo .
Major Physical Changes. Homo habilis. The First Stone Tools. Homo erectus Comes onto the Scene. The Appearance of Homo sapiens.

10. The Evolution of Hominoid and Human Behavior.
The Great Apes. Human Social Behavior. Reconstructing Early Human Behavior.

11. Human Biology and Variation.
The Nature of Human Genetic Variation. How Variation Is Measured. The Process of Geographic Isolation. Early Studies of Human Variation. Using Genetic Markers to Trace Population Relatedness. How Natural Selection Causes Human Variation. Genetic Influence on Behavioral Variation.

12. The Human Life Cycle: Human Biology, Growth, and Adaptability.
Human Growth Studies. Human Adaptability to Environment. Nutritional and Dietary Aspects of Adaptation. Modern Life and Human Evolution.

13. The Modern Human Condition in Evolutionary Perspective: Applied Biological Anthropology.
Premises and Goals of Applied Biological Anthropology. Biomedical Anthropology and Evolutionary Medicine. Biological Anthropology, Human Ecology, and Quality of Life.

Appendix 1. The Language of Biological Anthropology: Human Anatomy.

Appendix 2. The Language of Biological Anthropology: Geology.

Appendix 3. The Language of Biological Anthropology: Biology and Taxonomy.



Illustration Credits.


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