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Essentials of Modern Materials Science and Engineering
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction 2 WHY STUDY MATERIALS SCIENCE? 4 1.1 Overview of Materials Science 4 WHAT ISSUES IMPACT MATERIALS SELECTION AND DESIGN? 4 1.2 Property Considerations for Specifi c Applications 5 1.3 Impact of Bonding of Material Properties 10 1.4 Changes of Properties over Time 17 1.5 Impact of Economics on Decision Making 18 1.6 Sustainability and Green Engineering 18 WHAT CHOICES ARE AVAILABLE? 21 1.7 Classes of Materials 21 Chapter 2 Structure in Materials 30 HOW ARE ATOMS ARRANGED IN MATERIALS? 32 2.1 Introduction 32 2.2 Levels of Order 33 2.3 Lattice Parameters and Atomic Packing Factors 36 2.4 Density Estimations 40 2.5 Crystallographic Planes 41 2.6 Miller Indices 43 HOW ARE CRYSTALS MEASURED? 45 2.7 X-Ray Diffraction 45 2.8 Microscopy 52 HOW DO CRYSTALS FORM AND GROW? 53 2.9 Nucleation and Grain Growth 53 WHAT KINDS OF FLAWS ARE PRESENT IN CRYSTALS AND WHAT DO THEY AFFECT? 54 2.10 Point Defects 54 2.11 Dislocations 55 2.12 Slip 56 2.13 Dislocation Climb 59 WHAT NEW DEVELOPMENTS ARE HAPPENING WITH CRYSTALS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES? 60 2.14 Monocrystals and Nanocrystals 60 Chapter 3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties 66 HOW DO I KNOW HOW TO MEASURE PROPERTIES? 68 3.1 ASTM Standards 68 WHAT PROPERTIES CAN BE MEASURED AND WHAT DO THEY TELL ME? 69 3.2 Tensile Testing 69 3.3 Compressive Testing 79 3.4 Bend Testing 80 3.5 Hardness Testing 80 3.6 Creep Testing 83 3.7 Impact Testing 84 WILL I GET THE SAME RESULT EVERY TIME I RUN A SPECIFIC TEST? 86 3.8 Error and Reproducibility in Measurement 86 WHY DO MATERIALS FAIL UNDER STRESS? 91 3.9 Fracture Mechanics 91 HOW DO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CHANGE OVER TIME? 94 3.10 Fatigue Testing 95 3.11 Accelerated Aging Studies 96 Chapter 4 Metals 104 HOW DO YOU WORK WITH METALS? 106 4.1 Forming Operations 106 WHAT ADVANTAGES DO ALLOYS OFFER? 110 4.2 Alloys and Phase Diagrams 110 4.3 Carbon Steel 118 4.4 Phase Transitions 127 4.5 Age Hardening (Precipitation Hardening) 131 4.6 Copper and Its Alloys 132 4.7 Aluminum and Its Alloys 135 WHAT LIMITATIONS DO METALS HAVE? 137 4.8 Corrosion 137 WHAT HAPPENS TO METALS AFTER THEIR COMMERCIAL LIFE? 141 4.9 Recycling of Metals 141 Chapter 5 Polymers 148 WHAT ARE POLYMERS? 150 5.1 Polymer Terminology 150 5.2 Types of Polymers 153 HOW ARE POLYMER CHAINS FORMED? 161 5.3 Addition Polymerization 162 5.4 Condensation Polymerization 163 5.5 Importance of Molecular Weight Distributions 165 WHAT INFLUENCES THE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS? 167 5.6 Constitution 167 5.7 Configuration 169 5.8 Conformation 173 5.9 Additives 176 HOW ARE POLYMERS PROCESSED INTO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS? 177 5.10 Polymer Processing 177 WHAT HAPPENS TO POLYMERS WHEN THEY ARE DISCARDED? 181 5.11 Recycling of Polymers 181 Chapter 6 Ceramics and Carbon Materials 188 WHAT ARE CERAMIC MATERIALS? 190 6.1 Crystal Structures in Ceramics 190 WHAT ARE THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF CERAMICS? 198 6.2 Abrasives 198 6.3 Glasses 201 6.4 Cements 204 6.5 Refractories 209 6.6 Structural Clay Products 210 6.7 Whitewares 210 6.8 Advanced Ceramics 212 WHAT HAPPENS TO CERAMIC MATERIALS AT THE END OF THEIR USEFUL LIVES? 213 6.9 Recycling of Ceramic Materials 213 IS GRAPHITE A POLYMER OR A CERAMIC? 214 6.10 Graphite 214 DO OTHER CARBON MATERIALS OFFER UNUSUAL PROPERTIES? 215 6.11 Diamond 215 6.12 Carbon Fibers 216 6.13 Fullerenes (Buckyballs) and Carbon Nanotubes 219 Chapter 7 Composites 224 WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND HOW ARE THEY MADE? 226 7.1 Classes of Composites 226 7.2 Fiber-Reinforced Composites 227 7.3 Particulate Composites 237 7.4 Laminar Composites 242 WHAT HAPPENS TO OBSOLETE COMPOSITES? 243 7.5 Recycling of Composite Materials 243 Chapter 8 Electronic and Optical Materials 246 HOW DO ELECTRONS FLOW THROUGH METALS? 248 8.1 Conductivity in Metals 248 8.2 Electrical Resistivity 253 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THERE ARE NO FREE ELECTRONS? 254 8.3 Insulators 254 8.4 Intrinsic Semiconduction 254 8.5 Extrinsic Semiconduction 256 HOW DO ELECTRONIC DEVICES OPERATE? 258 8.6 Diodes 258 8.7 Transistors 259 8.8 Integrated Circuits 260 8.9 Dielectric Behavior and Capacitors 261 WHAT OTHER ELECTRICAL BEHAVIORS DO SOME MATERIALS DISPLAY? 262 8.10 Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Materials 262 WHAT ARE OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND WHY DO THEY MATTER? 263 8.11 Optical Properties 263 8.12 Applications of Optical Materials 267 Chapter 9 Biomaterials and Biological Materials 272 WHAT TYPES OF MATERIALS INTERACT WITH BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS? 274 9.1 Biomaterials, Biological Materials, and Biocompatibility 274 WHAT BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS PROVIDE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT AND WHAT BIOMATERIALS INTERACT WITH OR REPLACE THEM? 275 9.2 Structural Biological Materials and Biomaterials 275 WHAT BIOMATERIALS SERVE A NONSTRUCTURAL FUNCTION IN THE BODY? 285 9.3 Functional Biomaterials 285 WHAT ETHICAL ISSUES ARE UNIQUE TO BIOMATERIALS? 294 9.4 Ethics and Biomaterials 294 APPENDIX A: MAJOR PRODUCERS OF METALS AND POLYMERS 299 APPENDIX B: PROPERTIES OF MAJOR METALS AND ALLOYS 303 Glossary 309 Index 327

About the Author

Dr. James A. Newell is a professor of engineering at Rowan University. He received his PhD in engineering concentrating in polymers from Clemson in 1994. In 1997, he was named as the Dow Outstanding New Faculty Member by the North Midwest section of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). In 2001, he received the Ray Fahien Award from ASEE for contributions to Chemical Engineering education. Along with Kevin Dahm, he also received the 2001 Professional Interest Council Group III (PIC-III) Best Paper Award at the 2001 ASEE conference in Albuquerque.

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