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Table of Contents

1. Evolutionary Biology"Nothing in Biology Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution"What Is Evolution? Is It Fact or Theory?The Evolution of Evolutionary BiologyBefore DarwinCharles DarwinDarwin's evolutionary theoryEvolutionary biology after DarwinThe evolutionary synthesisEvolutionary biology since the synthesisBox 1A. Fundamental Principles of Biological EvolutionHow Evolution Is StudiedPhilosophical IssuesEthics, religion, and evolutionSummary2. The Tree of LifeThe Tree of Life, from Darwin to TodayBox 2A. Classification, Taxonomic Practice, and NomenclaturePhylogenetic TreesInferring phylogenies: An introductionVariations on the Phylogenetic ThemeBranches of a phylogenetic tree sometimes rejoinNot only organisms have Phylogenetic Insights into Evolutionary HistoryInferring the history of character evolutionEstimating time of divergencePatterns of evolutionBox 2B. Evidence for EvolutionSummary3. Natural Selection and AdaptationAdaptive Evolution ObservedNatural SelectionThe meaning of natural selectionNatural selection and chanceThe effective environment depends on the organismLevels of SelectionSelfish genes and unselfish behaviorsSelection of organisms and groupsSpecies selectionThe Nature of AdaptationsSelection of and selection forRecognizing adaptationsImperfections and ConstraintsNatural Selection and the Evolution of DiversityWhat Not To Expect of Natural SelectionSummary4. Mutation and VariationThe Machinery of InheritanceThe Inheritance of VariationGene mixing by segregationGene mixing by recombinationGene mixing with asexual inheritanceMutation: The Ultimate Source of VariationPoint mutationsStructural mutationsRates and Effects of MutationsMutation ratesBox 4A. Estimating Mutation RatesEffects of mutationsGerm line mutations and somatic mutationsIs Mutation Random?Nongenetic InheritanceSummary5. The Genetical Theory of Natural SelectionNatural Selection and Evolution in Real TimeEvolution by Selection and InheritanceSelectionPositive Selection: The Spread of Beneficial MutationsBox 5A. Evolution by Selection on a Single LocusThe rate of adaptationChance and adaptation: The probability that a beneficial mutation spreadsEvolutionary Side EffectsHitchhiking: When one allele goes for a ride with anotherWhen Selection Preserves VariationOverdominanceOther forms of balancing selectionSelection That Favors the Most CommonUnderdominance: When heterozygotes sufferPositive frequency-dependent selectionThe Evolution of a Population's Mean FitnessThe fundamental theorem of natural selection and the adaptive landscapeDeleterious MutationsA mutation-selection balanceThe mutation loadSummary6. Phenotypic EvolutionGenotypes and PhenotypesFitness Functions Describe Selection on Quantitative TraitsMeasuring the Strength of Directional SelectionEvolution by Directional SelectionWhen genes interact: Dominance and epistasisAdaptation from standing genetic variation versus new mutationsCan adaptation rescue species from extinction?Artificial SelectionCorrelated TraitsConstraints and trade-offsThe causes of genetic correlationsPhenotypic PlasticityThe Genetic Architecture of Quantitative TraitsQuantitative trait lociThe genetics of quantitative traitsSummary7. Genetic Drift: Evolution at RandomWhat Is Random Genetic Drift?The Genealogy of GenesHow Strong Is Genetic Drift?Populations t change in sizeDrift and Genetic Variation within SpeciesEstimating population sizeGenetic Drift and Natural SelectionCrossing an adaptive valley by driftThe fate of beneficial mutations in large populationsThe Evolution of Differences among SpeciesThe neutral theory of molecular evolutionSearching the Genes for Signatures of AdaptationSynonymous versus nonsynonymous differencesThe MK testDivergence among populationsSummary8. Evolution in SpacePatterns in SpaceGene FlowHow is gene flow measured?Genetic Divergence between PopulationsGene Flow and SelectionTension zonesGene Flow and DriftGene flow, local adaptation, and driftThe Evolution of DispersalThe Evolution of Species' RangesSummary9. Species and SpeciationWhat Are Species?Box 9A. Diagnosis of a New SpeciesReproductive IsolationPrezygotic barriersPostzygotic barriersHow fast does reproductive isolation evolve?The Causes of SpeciationBox 9B. Speciation in the Lab The Geography of SpeciationAllopatric speciationSympatric speciationParapatric speciationThe Genomics of SpeciationSummary10. All About SexWhat Are Females and Males?Sexual SelectionWhy are males sexually selected?Sexual selection by male-male competitionSexual selection by female choiceSexual selection in flowering plantsSex RatiosWhy Sex?Advantages to sex in ch interference favors sex and recombinationSelfing and OutcrossingSummary11. How to Be FitLife History Traits as Components of FitnessCosts of reproductionFitness in age-structured populationsSenescenceEvolution of the Population Growth Rate and DensityDiverse life historiesNumber of offspringLife histories and mating strategiesSpecialists and GeneralistsAdvantages of specializationSpecialization without trade-offsExperiments on niche evolutionSummary12. Cooperation and ConflictThe Costs and Benefits of Interacting Social Interactions and CooperationCooperation among Unrelated IndividualsReciprocityBox 12A. Evolutionarily Stable StrategiesShared Genes and the Evolution of AltruismBox 12B. Calculating RelatednessBox 12C. Altruistic Mating Displays in TurkeysSpiteConflict and Cooperation in Close Quarters: The FamilyConflict between matesMurder in the familyParent-offspring conflictEusocial animals: The ultimate familiesLevels of SelectionSelfish DNASelfish mitochondriaGroup selectionCooperation and Major Evolutionary TransitionsSummary13. Interactions among SpeciesCoevolution and Interactions among SpeciesThe Evolution of Enemies and VictimsAposematism and mimicryPlants and herbivoresParasite-host interactions and infectious diseaseMutualismsThe Evolution of Competitive InteractionsEvolution and Community StructureSummary14. The Evolution of Genes and GenomesThe Birth of a GeneGene familiesThe Death of a GeneEvolution of Protein-Coding GenesEvolution of coding regions by genetic driftEvolution of coding regions by positive selectionEvolution of Gene ExpressionGene StructureChromosome EvolutionFissions, fusions, and the evolution of chromosome numberInversions and the evolution of chromosome structureEvolution of Genome Size and ContentGenomes large and smallGenetic parasites and transposable elementsRoutes to the evolution of the smallest and largest genomesSummary15. Evolution and DevelopmentComparative Development and EvolutionGene RegulationBox 15A. Some Met Developmental GeneticsHox genes and the genetic toolkitDevelopmental-Genetic Bases of Phenotypic EvolutionEvolution by cis-regulatory mutationsEvolution by trans-regulatory mutationsOverview: The genetics and development of phenotypic evolutionEvolvability and Developmental PathwaysConstraints on Adaptive EvolutionPhenotypic Plasticity and CanalizationDoes phenotypic plasticity contribute to evolution?Summary16. Phylogeny: The Unity and Diversity of LifeInferring PhylogeniesWhy estimating phylogenies can be hardMethods for estimating phylogeniesBox 16A. Estimating Trees with LikelihoodHow Do We Use Phylogenies?Dating evolutionary eventsDiscovering the history of genes and culturesReconstructing ancestorsStudying adaptations: The comparative methodClassificationSummary17. The History of LifeSome Geological FundamentalsThe fossil recordBefore Life BeganThe Emergence of LifePrecambrian LifeThe Cambrian Explosion and the Origins of Animal DiversityPaleozoic LifeThe colonization of landPaleozoic life on landThe end-Permian mass extinctionMesozoic LifeThe Cenozoic EraThe modern world takes shapeThe adaptive radiation of mammalsPleistocene eventsSummary18. The Geography of EvolutionBiogeographic Evidence for EvolutionMajor Patterns of DistributionHistorical factors affecting geographic distributionsHistorical Expla Geographic DistributionsVicarianceDispersalPhylogeographyGeographic Range Limits: Ecology and EvolutionGeographic Patterns of DiversitySummary19. The Evolution of Biological DiversityEstimating and Modeling Changes in Biological DiversityStudying diversity in the fossil recordDiversity through the PhanerozoicRates of origination and extinctionMass extinctionsPhylogenetic Studies of DiversityThe shapes of phylogeniesDoes Species Diversity Reach Equilibrium?Summary20. Macroevolution: Evolution above the Species LevelThe Origin of Major New Forms of LifeThe origin of mammalsGradualism and SaltationThe Evolution of NoveltyIncipient and novel features: Permissive conditions and natural selectionComplex characteristicsHomology and the emergence of novel charactersFrom Microevolution to MacroevolutionRates of evolutionGradualism and punctuated equilibriaSpeciation and phenotypic evolutionTrends, Predictability, and ProgressTrends: Kinds and causesAre there major trends in the history of life?Predictability and contingency in evolutionThe question of progressSummary21. The Evolutionary Story of Homo sapiensWhere Did We Come From?Our closest living relativesHow humans differ from other apesOur ancestry: Hominins through time The Arrival of Homo sapiensThe human history of hybridizationThe diversity of human populationsBrain and LanguageDiet and Agriculture: A Revolution in Our WorldBox 21A. Domesticated Plants and AnimalsNatural Selection, Past and Present Our genetic loadsNatural selection and evolution in real timeEvolutionary mismatchesThe Evolution of CultureSummary22. Evolution and SocietyBox 22A. Refuting Antievolutionary ArgumentsCreationism and ScienceCreationismThe nature of scienceThe Evidence for EvolutionThe fossil recordPhylogenetic and comparative studiesGenes and genomesBiogeographyFailures of the argument from designEvolution, and its mechanisms, observedThe Uses and Implications of Evolutionary ScienceEvolution by natural selection: A broad and flexible conceptPractical applications of evolutionary scienceUsing organisms' adaptationsAgriculture and natural resourcesConservationBox 22B. The Current Extinction CrisisHealth and medicineEvolution and Human BehaviorVariation in cognitive and behavioral traitsHuman behavior: Evolution and cultureUnderstanding nature and humanitySummaryAppendix: A Statistics PrimerGlossaryLiterature CitedIllustration Credits

About the Author

Douglas J. Futuyma is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He received his B.S. from Cornell University and his Ph. D. in Zoology at the University of Michigan with Lawrence Slobodkin. Dr. Futuyma is the author of three previous editions of Evolution, as well as three editions of its predecessor, Evolutionary Biology. He received the 1997 Sewall Wright Award of the American Society of Naturalists and the 2012 Joseph Leidy Award of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University (Philadelphia). Dr. Futuyma has served as President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, the American Society of Naturalists, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences, and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996 and the National Academy of Sciences in 2006. He has served as Editor of Evolution and is currently Editor of the Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. In 2013, he was recognised as Honorary Doctor by the National University of Mongolia. An avid naturalist, his major research interests include evolution of interactions among insects and plants, speciation, and evolution of community structure. Mark Kirkpatrick is the Painter Centennial Professor of Genetics in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his B.A. in Biology from Harvard in 1978 and his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Washington with Monty Slatkin in 1983. Dr. Kirkpatrick has received a Guggenheim Fellowship (1997) and a Poste Rouge Fellowship (France, 1997). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2008), and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2016). Dr. Kirkpatrick received the Sewall Wright Award from the American Society of Naturalists (2014). He has served as Associate Editor of The American Naturalist, Theoretical Population Biology, and Genetics, and on the Editorial Boards of The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics and Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Dr. Kirkpatrick's research interests are in evolutionary genetics. He has worked on sexual selection, quantitative genetics, speciation, and species ranges. Current research topics include the evolution of sex determination and chromosome rearrangements.


"This book is masterfully reimagined and expertly written. The all-new illustrations provide a visual understanding of evolutionary processes while making the reading experience aesthetically pleasing. Overall, this comprehensive volume provides a superb introduction to the study of evolution." --Carolyn Norin, The Quarterly Review of Biology

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