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Experience Human Development

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 The Study of Human Development Human Development: An Ever-Evolving Field Studying the Life Span Human Development Today The Study of Human Development: Basic Concepts Domains of Development Periods of the Life Span Influences on Development Heredity, Environment, and Maturation Contexts of Development Normative and Nonnormative Influences Timing of Influences: Critical or Sensitive Periods Paul B. Baltes's Life-Span Developmental Approach CHAPTER 2 Theory and Research Basic Theoretical Issues Issue 1: Is Development Active or Reactive? Issue 2: Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? Theoretical Perspectives Perspective 1: Psychoanalytic Perspective 2: Learning Perspective 3: Cognitive Perspective 4: Contextual Perspective 5: Evolutionary/Sociobiological A Shifting Balance Research Methods Sampling Forms of Data Collection Basic Research Designs Developmental Research Designs CHAPTER 3 Forming a New Life Conceiving New Life How Fertilization Takes Place What Causes Multiple Births? Mechanisms of Heredity The Genetic Code What Determines Sex? Patterns of Genetic Transmission Genetic and Chromosomal Abnormalities Genetic Counseling and Testing Nature and Nurture: Influences of Heredity and Environment Studying Heredity and Environment How Heredity and Environment Work Together Some Characteristics Influenced by Heredity and Environment Prenatal Development Stages of Prenatal Development Environmental Influences: Maternal Factors Environmental Influences: Paternal Factors Monitoring and Promoting Prenatal Development Disparities in Prenatal Care The Need for Preconception Care CHAPTER 4 Birth and Physical Development during the First Three Years Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed The Birth Process Stages of Childbirth Electronic Fetal Monitoring Vaginal versus Cesarean Delivery Medicated versus Nonmedicated Delivery The Newborn Baby Size and Appearance Body Systems Medical and Behavioral Assessment States of Arousal Complications of Childbirth Low Birth Weight Postmaturity Stillbirth Can a Supportive Environment Overcome Effects of Birth Complications? Survival and Health Death during Infancy Immunization for Better Health Early Physical Development Principles of Development Patterns of Growth Nutrition The Brain and Reflex Behavior Early Sensory Capacities Motor Development Milestones of Motor Development Motor Development and Perception Eleanor and James Gibson's Ecological Theory How Motor Development Occurs: Thelan's Dynamic Systems Theory Cultural Influences on Motor Development CHAPTER 5 Cognitive Development during the First Three Years Studying Cognitive Development: Six Approaches Behaviorist Approach: Basic Mechanics of Learning Classical and Operant Conditioning Infant Memory Psychometric Approach: Developmental and Intelligence Testing Testing Infants and Toddlers Assessing the Impact of the Early Home Environment Early Intervention Piagetian Approach: The Sensorimotor Stage Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage Do Imitative Abilities Develop Earlier than Piaget Thought? Development of Knowledge about Objects and Space Evaluating Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage Information-Processing Approach: Perceptions and Representations Habituation Visual and Auditory Processing Abilities Information Processing as a Predictor of Intelligence Information Processing and the Development of Piagetian Abilities Cognitive Neuroscience Approach: The Brain's Cognitive Structures Memory Systems Understanding of Number Social-Contextual Approach: Learning Form Interactions with Caregivers Language Development Sequence of Early Language Development Characteristics of Early Speech Classic Theories of Language Acquisition: The Nature-Nurture Debate Influences on Early Language Development Preparing for Literacy: The Benefits of Reading Aloud CHAPTER 6 Psychosocial Development during the First Three Years Foundations of Psychosocial Development Emotions Temperament Earliest Social Experiences: The Infant in the Family Gender: How Different Are Baby Boys and Girls? Developmental Issues in Infancy Developing Trust Developing Attachments Emotional Communication with Caregivers: Mutual Regulation Social Referencing Developmental Issues in Toddlerhood The Emerging Sense of Self Development of Autonomy The Roots of Moral Development: Socialization and Internalization Contact with Other Children Siblings Sociability with Nonsiblings Children of Working Parents Effects of Maternal Employment Early Child Care Maltreatment: Child Abuse and Neglect Maltreatment: Facts and Figures Contributing Factors: An Ecological View Helping Families in Trouble Long-Term Effects of Maltreatment CHAPTER 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Aspects of Physical Development Bodily Growth and Change Sleep Patterns and Problems Brain Development Motor Skills Health and Safety Preventing Obesity Undernutrition Deaths and Accidental Injuries Health in Context: Environmental Influences COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piagetian Approach: the Preoperational Child Advances of Preoperational Thought Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought Do Young Children Have Theories of Mind? Information-Processing Approach: Memory Development Basic Processes and Capacities Recognition and Recall Forming and Retaining Childhood Memories Intelligence: Psychometric and Vygotskian Approaches Traditional Psychometric Measures Influences on Measured Intelligence Testing and Teaching Based on Vygotsky's Theory Language Development Vocabulary Grammar and Syntax Pragmatics and Social Speech Private Speech Delayed Language Development Preparation for Literacy Early Childhood Education Goals and Types of Preschools Compensatory Preschool Programs The Child in Kindergarten CHAPTER 8 Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood The Developing Self The Self-Concept and Cognitive Development Self-Esteem Understanding and Regulating Emotions Erikson: Initiative versus Guilt Gender Gender Differences Perspectives on Gender Development Play: The Business of Early Childhood Cognitive Levels of Play The Social Dimension of Play How Gender Influences Play How Culture Influences Play Parenting Forms of Discipline Parenting Styles Special Behavioral Concerns Relationships with Other Children Sibling Relationships The Only Child Playmates and Friends CHAPTER 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Aspects of Physical Development Height and Weight Nutrition and Sleep Brain Development Motor Development and Physical Play Health, Fitness, and Safety Obesity and Body Image Other Medical Conditions Accidental Injuries COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piagetian Approach: The Concrete Operational Child Cognitive Advances Influences of Neurological Development, Culture, and Schooling Moral Reasoning Information-Processing Approach: Planning, Attention, and Memory How Do Executive Skills Develop? Selective Attention Working Memory Span Metamemory: Understanding Memory Mnemonics: Strategies for Remembering Information Processing and Piagetian Tasks Psychometric Approach: Assessment of Intelligence The IQ Controversy Influences on Intelligence Is There More Than One Intelligence? Other Directions in Intelligence Testing Language Vocabulary, Grammar, and Syntax Pragmatics: Knowledge about Communication Second-Language Learning The Child In School Entering First Grade Becoming Literate Influences on School Achievement Educating Children with Special Needs Children with Learning Problems Gifted Children CHAPTER 10 Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood The Developing Self Self-Concept Development: Representational Systems Self-Esteem Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior The Child in the Family Family Atmosphere Family Structure Sibling Relationships The Child in the Peer Group Positive and Negative Effects of Peer Relations Popularity Friendship Aggression and Bullying Mental Health Common Emotional Disturbances Treatment Techniques Stress and Resilience CHAPTER 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Adolescence: A Developmental Transition Adolescence as a Social Construction Adolescence: A Time of Opportunities and Risks PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Puberty How Puberty Begins: Hormonal Changes Timing, Signs, and Sequence of Puberty and Sexual Maturity The Adolescent Brain Physical and Mental Health Physical Activity Sleep Needs and Problems Nutrition and Eating Disorders Use and Abuse of Drugs Depression Death in Adolescence COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Aspects of Cognitive Maturation Piaget's Stage of Formal Operations Changes in Information Processing Language Development Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg's Theory An Ethic of Care: Gilligan's Theory Prosocial Behavior and Volunteer Activity Educational and Vocational Issues Influences on School Achievement Dropping Out of High School Preparing for Higher Educational o r Vocations CHAPTER 12 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence The Search for Identity Erikson: Identity versus Identity Confusion Marcia: Identity Status-Crisis and Commitment Gender Differences in Identity Formation Ethnic Factors in Identity Formation Sexuality Sexual Orientation and Identity Sexual Behavior Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Teenage Pregnancy and Childbearing Relationships with Family, Peers, and Adult Society Is Adolescent Rebellion a Myth? Changing Time Use and Changing Relationships Adolescents and Parents Adolescents and Siblings Adolescents and Peers Antisocial Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency Becoming a Delinquent: Genetic and Neurological Factors Becoming a Delinquent: How Family, Peer, and Community Influences Interact Long-Term Prospects Preventing and Treating Delinquency CHAPTER 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood Emerging Adulthood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Health and Fitness Health Status and Health Issues Genetic Influences on Health Behavioral Influences on Health and Fitness Indirect Influences on Health and Fitness Mental Health Problems Sexual and Reproductive Issues Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Menstrual Disorders Infertility COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Perspectives on Adult Cognition Beyond Piaget: New Ways of Thinking in Adulthood Schaie: A Life-Span Model of Cognitive Development Sternberg: Insight and Know-How Emotional Intelligence Moral Reasoning Culture and Moral Reasoning Gender and Moral Reasoning Education and Work The College Transition Entering the World of Work CHAPTER 14 Psychosocial Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood Emerging Adulthood: Patterns and Tasks Varied Paths to Adulthood Identity Development in Emerging Adulthood Developing Adult Relationships with Parents Personality Development: Four Views Normative-Stage Models Timing-of-Events Model Trait Models: Costa and McCrae's Five Factors Typological Models Foundations of Intimate Relationships Friendship Love Marital and Nonmarital Lifestyles Single Life Gay and Lesbian Relationships Cohabitation Marriage Parenthood Parenthood as a Developmental Experience How Dual-Income Families Cope When Marriage Ends Divorce Remarriage and Stepparenthood CHAPTER 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Middle Age: A Social Construct PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Physical Changes Sensory and Psychomotor Functioning Structural and Systemic Changes Sexuality and Reproductive Functioning Physical and Mental Health Health Trends at Midlife Behavioral Influences on Health Socioeconomic Status and Health Race/Ethnicity and Health Gender and Health Stress in Middle Age Emotions and Health Mental Health COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Measuring Cognitive Abilities in Middle Age Schaie: The Seattle Longitudinal Study Horn and Cattell: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence The Distinctiveness of Adult Cognition The Role of Expertise Integrative Thought Creativity Characteristics of Creative Achievers Creativity and Age Work and Education Work versus Early Retirement Work and Cognitive Development The Mature Learner CHAPTER 16 Psychosocial Development in Middle Adulthood Looking at the Life Course in Middle Age Change at Midlife: Theoretical Approaches Trait Models Normative-Stage Models Timing of Events: The Social Clock The Self at Midlife: Issues and Themes Is There a Midlife Crisis? Identity Development Psychological Well-Being and Positive Mental Health Relationships at Midlife Theories of Social Contact Relationships, Gender, and Quality of Life Consensual Relationships Marriage Cohabitation Divorce Marital Status, Well-Being, and Health Gay and Lesbian Relationships Friendships Relationships with Maturing Children Adolescent Children: Issues for Parents When Children Leave: The Empty Nest Parenting Grown Children Prolonged Parenting: The "Cluttered Nest" Other Kinship Ties Relationships with Aging Parents Relationships with Siblings Grandparenthood CHAPTER 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood Old Age Today The Graying of the Population Young Old to Oldest Old PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Longevity and Aging Trends and Factors in Life Expectancy Why People Age How Far Can the Life Span Be Extended? Physical Changes Organic and Systemic Changes The Aging Brain Sensory and Psychomotor Functioning Sleep Sexual Functioning Physical and Mental Health Health Status Chronic Conditions and Disabilities Lifestyle Influences on Health and Longevity Mental and Behavioral Problems COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Aspects of Cognitive Development Intelligence and Processing Abilities Memory: How Does It Change? Wisdom CHAPTER 18 Psychosocial Development in Late Adulthood Theory and Research on Personality Development Erik Erikson: Normative Issues and Tasks The Five-Factor Model: Personality Traits in Old Age Well-Being in Late Adulthood Coping and Mental Health Models of "Successful," or "Optimal," Aging Practical and Social Issues Related to Aging Work and Retirement How Do Older Adults Fare Financially? Living Arrangements Personal Relationships in Late Life Theories of Social Contact and Social Support The Importance of Social Relationships The Multigenerational Family Marital Relationships Long-Term Marriage Widowhood Divorce and Remarriage Nonmarital Lifestyles and Relationships Single Life Cohabitation Gay and Lesbian Relationships Friendships Nonmarital Kinship Ties Relationships with Adult Children Relationships with Siblings Becoming Great-Grandparents CHAPTER 19 Dealing with Death and Bereavement The Many, Changing Meanings of Death and Dying The Cultural Context The Mortality Revolution Care of the Dying Facing Death and Loss Physical and Cognitive Changes Preceding Death Confronting One's Own Death Patterns of Grieving Attitudes about Death and Dying across the Life Span Significant Losses Surviving a Spouse Losing a Parent in Adulthood Losing a Child Mourning a Miscarriage Medical, Legal, and Ethical Issues: The "Right to Die" Suicide Hastening Death Finding Meaning and Purpose in Life and Death Reviewing a Life Development: A Lifelong Process

About the Author

Diane E. Papalia As a professor, Diane E. Papalia has taught thousands of undergraduates at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She received her bachelor's degree, majoring in psychology, from Vassar College and both her master's degree in child development and family relations and her Ph.D. in life-span developmental psychology from West Virginia University. She has published numerous articles in such professional journals as Human Development, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Sex Roles, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology and Journal of Gerontology. Most of these papers have dealt with her major research focus, cognitive development from childhood through old age. She is especially interested in intelligence in old age and factors that contribute to the maintenance of intellectual functioning in late adulthood. She is a Fellow in the Gerontological Society of America. She is the coauthor, with Sally Wendkos Olds and Ruth Duskin Feldman, of A Child's World, now in its eighth edition; of Psychology with Sally Wendkos Olds; and of Adult Development and Aging, with Cameron J. Camp and Ruth Duskin Feldman. Ruth Duskin Feldman is an award-winning writer and educator. With Diane E. Papalia and Sally Wendkos Olds, she coauthored the fourth and seventh editions of Human Development and the eighth edition of A Child's World. She also is coauthor, with Dr.Papalia and Cameron J. Camp, of Adult Development and Aging. A former teacher, she has developed educational materials for all levels from elementary school through college and has prepared ancillaries to accompany the Papalia-Olds books. She is author or coauthor of four books addressed to general readers, including Whatever Happened to the Quiz Kids? Perils and Profits of Growing Up Gifted. She has written for numerous newspapers and magazines and has lectured extensively and made national and local media appearances throughout the United States on education and gifted children. She received her bachelor's degree from Northwestern University, where she was graduated with highest distinction and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.

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