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Facial Aesthetics


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Table of Contents

Preface. Acknowledgements. Dedication. PART I CONCEPTS. Chapter 1 Facial Beauty. Definition of beauty and aesthetics. Is beauty ?in the eye of the beholder?? The enigma of facial beauty: Why is one face seen as beautiful and another as unattractive? What guides and validates our judgement? Facial beauty: historical and philosophical perspectives. Facial beauty: scientific perspectives. Importance of facial beauty. References. Chapter 2 Facial Proportions: Classical Canons to Modern Craniofacial Anthropometry. Introduction. Ancient Egypt. Ancient Greece. Ancient Rome. The Renaissance. The Enlightenment and Neoclassicism. Twentieth century. The golden proportion. Conclusion. References. Chapter 3 Facial Expression: Influence and Significance. Introduction. Importance of facial expressions. History of research into facial expressions. References. Chapter 4 Psychological Ramifications of Facial Deformities. Health and psychosocial well-being. Self-image. The effect of the response of others on those with facial deformities. To treat or not to treat? The controversial debate. Body dysmorphic disorder: the delusion of deformity. Conclusion. References. PART II CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS. SECTION 1 Patient Interview and Clinical Diagnostic Records. Introduction to Section 1. Chapter 5 Patient Interview and Consultation. Introduction. Presenting complaint. History of presenting complaint. Psychosocial history. Medical history. Danger signals and the ?problem? patient. References. Chapter 6 Clinical Diagnostic Records, Natural Head Position and Craniofacial Anthropometry. Introduction. Radiographs. Clinical photographs. Study models. Serial height measurement. Three-dimensional hard and soft tissue imaging. The Frankfort Craniometric Agreement and the Frankfort Plane. The unreliability of anatomical reference planes. Natural head position: the key to diagnosis. Choice of horizontal and vertical reference planes. Orientation of the patient in natural head position. Equipment for digital photography and data storage. Patient consent forms. Background and lighting. Facial views. Intraoral views. Anthropometric craniofacial surface landmarks. References. Chapter 7 Cephalometry and Cephalometric Analysis. Introduction. Landmarks, lines, planes and volumes. Cephalometric planes of reference. Posteroanterior cephalometric radiography. Description of dentofacial deformities. Sagittal skeletal relationships. Sagittal dentoalveolar relationships. Vertical skeletal relationships. Vertical dentoalveolar relationships. Transverse skeletal relationships. References. SECTION 2 Facial Aesthetic Analysis: Facial Type, Proportions and Symmetry. Introduction to Section 2. The diagnostic process ? clinical evaluation. Clinical evaluation ? the sequence. References. Chapter 8 Facial Type. Introduction. The fictional conception of the ?normal?. The proportion indices. Cephalic index. Head circumference. Facial shape. Facial index. Facial divergence. Sagittal facial profile contour. Parasagittal facial profile contour. Vertical facial profile form. Curvilinear relationships ? frontal and profile views. Angularity of facial contour lines. Facial profile curves and ?S-shaped? curvilinear considerations. Contour defects. Historical background. Considerations in facial aesthetic evaluation. References. Chapter 9 Facial Proportions. Introduction. Craniofacial height to standing height proportion. Vertical facial proportions. Transverse facial proportions. References. Chapter 10 Facial Symmetry and Asymmetry. Introduction. Relationship between symmetry and proportion. Balance and harmony: a note on terminology. Aetiology and classification of facial asymmetry. Clinical evaluation. Dynamic clinical evaluation. Dental midlines. Radiographic-cephalometric evaluation. Three-dimensional imaging evaluation. Craniofacial growth and treatment timing. References. SECTION 3 Facial Aesthetic Analysis: Regional Analysis. Introduction to Section 3. The modified subunit principle. Relativity and the five facial prominences. References. Upper Facial Analysis. Chapter 11 The Forehead. Introduction and terminology. Anatomy. Clinical evaluation. References. Chapter 12 The Orbital Region. Introduction. Terminology. Anatomy. Clinical evaluation. References. Midfacial Analysis. Chapter 13 The Ears. Introduction. Terminology. Anatomy. Clinical Evaluation. References. Chapter 14 The Nose. Introduction. Terminology. Anatomy. Nasal type, topography and the subunit principle. Clinical evaluation. Normative values for nasal dimensions. Nasal function. References. Chapter 15 The Malar Region. Introduction. Terminology. Anatomy. Clinical evaluation. Principles in planning the correction of malar deficiency. References. Chapter 16 The Maxilla and Midface. Introduction. Terminology. Anatomy. Clinical evaluation. Maxillary deficiency. Maxillary excess. Maxillary asymmetry. References. Lower Facial Analysis. Introduction. Chapter 17 The Lips. Introduction. Anatomy. Terminology. Clinical evaluation. References. Chapter 18 Mentolabial (Labiomental) Fold. Introduction. Mentolabial fold (sulcus) depth. Mentolabial angle. Vertical position of the mentolabial fold. Mentolabial fold morphology. References. Chapter 19 The Mandible. Terminology. Anatomy, morphology and size. Mandibular deficiency. Mandibular excess. References. Chapter 20 The Chin. Introduction. Anatomy. Terminology. Classification of chin deformities. Sagittal evaluation and chin projection. Vertical chin height. Transverse chin width. References. Chapter 21 Submental-Cervical Region. Introduction. Anatomy. Terminology. Aetiology. Clinical evaluation. Relative submental projection and aesthetics. References. SECTION 4 Smile and Dentogingival Aesthetic Analysis. Introduction to Section 4. Chapter 22 Dental-Occlusal Relationships: Terminology, Description and Classification. Introduction. Terminology. Dental occlusion. Classification of dental-occlusal relationships. The term ?Class? and classification. The aetiology of malocclusion. Oral health. Occlusal function. References. Chapter 23 Smile Aesthetics. Introduction. The generation of a smile. Lip aesthetics. Lip lines. Upper lip?maxillary incisor relationship. Incisor exposure and phonetic analysis. Incisor exposure and anterior occlusal guidance. Smile symmetry. Dynamic upper lip curvature. Orientation of the transverse occlusal plane. Orientation of the sagittal occlusal plane. Smile curvature (smile arc). Dental midlines. Buccal corridors (negative space). Smile aesthetics in profile view. References. Chapter 24 Dentogingival Aesthetics. Dentogingival Aesthetics. Introduction. Anatomy. Tooth shape. Tooth size. Tooth proportions. Tooth symmetry. Arch form. Maxillary incisor axial angulations. Gradation (front-to-back progression). Gingival aesthetics. Contacts, connectors and embrasures. Tooth colour. References. Index.

About the Author

Dr Farhad B. Naini is Consultant Orthodontist at Kingston and St George's Hospitals and Honorary Senior Lecturer in craniofacial anatomy, biology and development at St George's Medical School, University of London, UK.


"[An] opus inimitable in its field an outstandingcomposition an in-depth, thoroughly comprehensive arrangementof information to inform, guide, and teach us in the analysis anddiagnosis of facial deformity incredibly interesting andpainstakingly researched pages highly illustrated on everypage This is a book that will be of interest to anyone whohas an interest in facial aesthetics. From a clinical point ofview, this book will interest anyone who looks after patients withdentofacial deformity from maxillofacial and plastic surgeons,orthodontists, to general dentists and any other dental and medicalspecialists who desire an understanding of the importance of facialaesthetics in the treatment of real people ratherthan patients with a disease entity . (European Journal of Orthodontics, 1 May 2013) I think this a remarkable effort from a single author: itis clearly a labor of love ... Most residents in plastic surgery,facial plastic surgery, or maxillofacial surgery should be exposedto this material in their training, and this is a good place to getthat exposure in one place. (Plastic andReconstructive Surgery,1 November 2012) Thoughtfully integrates historical, clinical, andsurgical perspectives in the medical fields ranging frommaxillofacial to plastic and reconstructive surgery. The authorelegantly provides the science and art of facial aesthetics withemphasis given to analysis of the craniofacial complex, facialaesthetic units, and clinical evaluation, in addition to smile anddental-occlusal relationships has undertaken a detailedapproach in presenting dental aesthetics, which makes thispublication rather unique allows a broad appeal to bothdental and medical specialists. (Archives of FacialPlastic Surgery, 1 September 2012) The best analysis I have ever seen of the comprehensivefactors involved in establishing exactly what makes a personfacially attractive, unattractive, or simply average. Thebook s 24 logically arranged, easy-to-followchapters beautifully illustrated in fullcolour systematically and thoroughly explore all thedentofacial and craniofacial details that determine how welook. I believe Facial Aesthetics will find an enthusiasticreception among orthodontists who would like to refine theirunderstanding and appreciation of the human face and to apply theauthor s practical protocols to their clinical diagnosis andtreatment planning. (Journal of ClinicalOrthodontics, 2012) This is an excellent reference text for those interestedin facial aesthetics and surgery. Section II looks at facialtype, propor-tions and symmetry, providing anout-standing and essential reference Section III isastounding and presents each facial region using annotatedillus-trations and methodically explains each facial subunit.The research at the core of this text is comprehensive and it iscomplemented by the generous use of illustrations. I highlyrecommend this book to anyone with an interest in facialaesthetics. (British Dental Journal, 24September 2011)"In summary, this book is written in a clear and accessible format,with colour illustration throughout, an important guide for all thepractitioners in the field of facial aesthetic surgery andaesthetic dentistry with an interest in refining theirunderstanding and appreciation of the human face and applyingpractical protocols to their clinical diagnosis and treatmentplanning." (Journal of Oral Health and Dental Management, 1December 2011) "The text comprehensively examines facial aesthetics in thecontext of dentofacial and craniofacial diagnosis and treatmentplanning." (Booknews, 1 June 2011)

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