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Flavor Chemistry and Technology

This book combines the essentials of both flavor chemistry and flavor technology. Flavor chemistry is a relatively new area of study which became significant in the 1960s with the availability of gas chromatog- raphy and mass spectrometry. Prior to this instrumentation, flavor chemistry focused on only the most abundant chemical constituents. It is a well-documented fact that often the trace constituents of flavors are the most important components. Flavor chemistry flourished in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Since money was readily available for flavor research great strides were made in understanding the biosynthetic pathways of flavor formation and the chemical constituents that are important to flavor. But the 1970s and early 1980s have not been good years for flavor research, especially in the United States. Since funding agencies have chosen to support re- search in nutrition and toxicology, many of the research leaders in the flavor area have had to change their research emphasis in order to obtain funding. Today, European researchers turn out the majority of pub- lished work in flavor chemistry. While all of the flavor houses conduct some basic flavor research, it is confidential and seldom becomes pub- lished. Therefore, the reader will note that a lot of the references are from the late 1960s and early 1970s; and also that European authors dominate the flavor literature in recent years. Flavor technology is an ancient area of study. Man has searched for a means of making food more pleasurable or palatable since time began.
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Table of Contents

I Flavor Chemistry.- 1 Flavor and Its Study.- A. Sample Preparation.- B. Isolation of Food Flavors.- C. Concentration of Dilute Organic and Aqueous Flavor Isolates.- D. Flavor Analysis by Direct Injection.- E. Gas Chromatography.- F. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.- G. Identification of Volatile Flavors.- H. Summary.- References.- 2 Biogenesis of Flavor in Fruits and Vegetables.- A. Biogenesis of Fruit Aroma.- B. Biogenesis of Vegetable Aroma.- C. Location of Flavor in Plant.- D. Influence of Genetics, Nutrition, Environment Maturity and Storage on Development of Flavor.- E. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Changes in Food Flavor Due to Processing.- A. Nonenzymatic Browning.- B. Flavors from Lipids.- C. Flavors Formed via Fermentation.- References.- 4 Off-Flavors in Foods.- A. Environmental Contamination.- B. Off-Flavors Due to Genetics or Diet.- C. Off-Flavors Due to Chemical Changes in the Food.- D. Microbial Off-Flavors.- E. Summary.- References.- II Flavor Technology.- 5 Flavors and Flavoring Materials.- A. Flavorings in Foods.- B. Added Flavorings.- C. Compounded Flavorings.- D. Flavoring Materials.- E. The Flavor Industry.- F. Relationships between the Food and Flavor Manufacturers.- G. Selection of Flavoring Materials.- References.- 6 Flavoring Materials of natural Origin.- A. natural Flavors and Flavoring: Definitions.- B. Sources of Natural Flavoring Materials.- C. Herbs and Spices.- D. Plants as Sources of Essential Oils.- E. Fruit Fruit Juices and Concentrates.- F. Vanilla.- G. Beverage Flavors.- H. Aromatic Vegetables.- References.- 7 Flavoring Materials Made by Processing.- A. natural Products Made by Roasting: Cocoa/Chocolate.- B. Reaction Flavors: Imitation Meat Flavors.- C. Enzymatically Derived Flavorings: Butter, Cheese.- D. Flavors Made by Fermentation.- E. Biotechnology: Production of Aroma Chemicals.- F. Flavors Made by Pyrolysis: Smoke Flavors.- References.- 8 Synthetic Flavoring Materials.- A. Imitation Flavorings: Matching Mature.- B. Classification of Flavorants by Molecular Structure.- C. Threshold Values.- D. Sensory Characters of Organics.- E. Solvents.- F. nomenclature of Organic Chemicals.- References.- 9 Flavor Potentiators.- A. Chemical Properties.- B. Sensory Properties.- C. Flavor Potentiators in Foods.- D. Toxicity.- E. Other Potentiators.- References.- 10 Flavorists and Flavor Creation.- A. The Flavorist.- B. Working Environment.- C. Flavor Creation.- D. Flavor Development in End Products.- E. Sensory Assessment.- F. Conclusion.- References.- 11 Flavor Production.- A. Liquid Flavorings.- B. Emulsions.- C. Dry Flavorings.- References.- 12 Application of Flavorings in Food Processing.- A. Flavors in Foods.- B. Achieving Flavor Balance.- C Criteria for Application of Flavorings.- D. Available Flavorings.- E. Processing Parameters.- F. Specific Flavoring Applications.- G. Conclusion.- References.- Additional Reading.- 13 Flavors and the Law.- A. Need for Legislation.- B. Mature of Flavoring Ingredients.- C. Systems of Flavor Legislation.- D. Flavor Legislation in the United States.- E. Flavor Legislation in Europe.- F. Labeling of Flavors.- References.- 14 Quality Control.- A. Analytical Tests.- B. Sensory Analysis.- References.

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