Preface. Index of Authors. List of Companies. 1 Introduction. A Dynamic Business With Taste - The Flavour Industry (Herta Ziegler). 2 Manufacturing Processes. 2.1 Physical Processes. 2.1.1 Extraction (Manfred Ziegler). 2.1.2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) (Karl-Werner Quirin, Dieter Gerard). 2.1.3 Distillation (Manfred Ziegler, Martin Reichelt). 2.1.4 Spray Drying and Other Methods for Encapsulation of Flavourings (Uwe-Jens Salzer). 2.1.5 Freeze Drying (Karl Heinz Deicke). 2.2 Biotechnological Processes (Joachim Tretzel, Stefan Marx). 2.2.1 Introduction. 2.2.2 Flavour Generation by Fermentation of Food Raw Materials. 2.2.3 Flavour Generation in Bioreactors. 2.2.4 Surface Fermentation. 2.2.5 Submerged Fermentation. 2.2.6 Downstream Processing. 2.2.7 Enzyme Reactors. 2.2.8 Cell Culture Reactors. 2.2.9 Genetic Engineering. 3 Raw Materials for Flavourings. 3.1 Introduction (Gunter Matheis). 3.2 Flavouring Ingredients 3.2.1 Chemically Defined Flavouring Substances. 3.2.2 Flavouring Preparations and Some Source Materials. 3.2.3 Process Flavourings (Christoph Cerny). 3.2.4 Smoke Flavourings. 3.3 Non-flavouring Ingredients. 3.3.1 Extraction Solvents (Howard D. Preston, Robert F. van Croonenborgh). 3.3.2 Permitted Carriers and Carrier Solvents (Howard D. Preston). 3.3.3 Emulsifiers - Stabilisers - Enzymes (William J. N. Marsden). 3.3.4 Flavour Modifiers (Gunter Matheis). 3.3.5 Antioxidants and Preservatives. 4 Blended Flavourings (Willi Grab). 4.1 Introduction. 4.1.1 Flavour Analysis. 4.1.2 Flavour Profiles. 4.1.3 Flavouring Raw Materials. 4.1.4 Flavouring Composition. 4.1.5 Flavour Release. 4.1.6 Application of Flavourings. 4.1.7 Flavouring Production. 4.1.8 Flavouring Stability. 4.2 Fruit Flavours. 4.2.1 The Flavour of Natural Fruits. 4.2.2 World of Commercially Important Fruit Flavours. 4.2.3 Sensorially Interesting Fruit Flavours. 4.3 Other Blended Flavourings. 4.3.1 Processed Flavourings. 4.3.2 Fermented Flavourings. 18.104.22.168 Alcoholic Flavourings. 22.214.171.124 Dairy Flavourings. 4.3.3 Vegetable Flavourings. 4.3.4 Vanilla Flavourings. 4.3.5 Fantasy Flavourings. 5 Application. 5.1 Introduction (Gunter Matheis). 5.1.1 Flavour Binding and Release. 5.1.2 Interactions with Carbohydrates. 5.1.3 Interactions with Proteins. 5.1.4 Interactions with Free Amino Acids. 5.1.5 Interactions with Lipids. 5.1.6 Interactions with Inorganic Salts, Fruit Acids, Purine Alkaloids, Phenolic Compounds and Ethanol. 5.1.7 Interactions with Fat Replacers. 5.1.8 Interactions with Complex Systems and with Foodstuffs. 5.1.9 Conclusion. 5.2 Flavourings for Beverages. 5.2.1 Soft Drinks (Matthias Sass). 5.2.2 Alcoholic Beverages (Gunther Zach). 5.3 Flavourings for Confectioneries, Baked Goods, Ice-cream and Dairy Products. 5.3.1 Flavourings for Confectioneries (Jan-Pieter Miedema). 5.3.2 Flavourings for Baked Goods (Jan-Pieter Miedema). 5.3.3 Flavourings for Ice-Cream (Alan D. Ellison, John E. Jackson, Jan-Pieter Miedema, Jurgen Brand). 5.3.4 Flavourings for Dairy Products and Desserts (Jan-Pieter Miedema, Eckhard Schildknecht). 5.4 Flavouring of Dehydrated Convenience Food and Kitchen Aids (Chahan Yeretzian, Imre Blank, Stefan Palzer). 5.4.1 Introduction. 5.4.2 Savoury Flavours. 5.4.3 Manufacturing of Dehydrated Convenience Foods. 5.4.4 Conclusions. 6 Quality Control. 6.1 Sensory Analysis in Quality Control (Helmut Grub). 6.1.1 Introduction. 6.1.2 "Sensory". 6.1.3 The Senses. 6.1.4 Man as a Measuring Instrument. 6.1.5 Sensory Quality Measuring Methods. 6.2 Analytical Methods. 6.2.1 General Methods (Dirk Achim Muller). 6.2.2 Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis in Quality Control of Flavourings (Hanns-Ludwig Schmidt, Robert A. Werner, Andreas Rossmann, Armin Mosandl, Peter Schreier). 6.2.3 Enantioselective Analysis (Armin Mosandl). 6.2.4 Key Odorants of Food Identified by Aroma Analysis (Werner Grosch). 6.3 Microbiological Testing (Heinz-Jurgen Logtenborger). 7 Legislation / Toxicology (Uwe-Jens Salzer). 7.1 Introduction / Definitions. 7.2 Toxicological Considerations. 7.3 FAO/WHO and Council of Europe. 7.4 European Union. 7.4.1 General. 7.4.2 Flavour Legislation. 7.4.3 Food Additive Legislation. 7.4.4 Other Rules Concerning Flavourings. 7.5 America. 7.5.1 Introduction. 7.5.2 The NAFTA Countries. 7.5.3 South American Countries. 7.6 Asia. 7.6.1 General. 7.6.2 The "Middle East". 7.6.3 The "Far East". 7.7 South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. 7.8 Religious Dietary Rules. 7.8.1 Introduction. 7.8.2 "Kosher". 7.8.3 "Halal". 7.8.4 Comparison of Kosher and Halal Requirements. Index.
Born near Munich in 1961, Dr. Herta Ziegler studied chemistry at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, focusing on analytical chemistry. She soon discovered her profound interest for the organic analysis of complex natural matrices, which were also the subjects of her master and doctoral theses with Prof. Gerhard Spiteller. Her position as head of corporate research at Erich Ziegler GmbH since 1992 allowed her to combine her penchant for citrus oils with her professional activities In the 1980s, Erich Ziegler laid the foundation for 'Flavourings' with his book 'Die nat?en und k?chen Aromen' ('Natural and Artificial Aromas'). He contributed this expertise to the first edition, when in continuation of the family tradition, 'Flavourings', addressed an international audience under the auspices of Herta Ziegler in 1998. With the present second edition, dedicated to Erich Ziegler on the occasion of his 80th birthday, she presents an updated version of her comprehensive overview of the flavour & fragrance industry.
"Noted for its original tone and stance and for the way it brings this somewhat secret area of science to immediate life." (Electric Review, May 2007) From Reviews of the Previous Edition: "This edition is a must for all who are employed in the field of flavourings both in industry and academia." (Advances in Food Science) "The books draws on the expert knowledge of well-known contributors with backgrounds both in industry and academia. It intends to grant its readership a deep and broad insight into the production, processing and application of various food flavourings and also focuses on the basic and modern analytical methods used in this field. This book is useful for scientists working in both applied research and industrial R & D. It is therefore intended for a broad readership of technologists, analysts, microbiologists and food chemists active in the field of food flavouring. It is also suitable for teachers and students, both undergraduate and graduate, in departments of food science, food technology, food engineering, food chemistry, microbiology, and, of course, biotechnology." (Lwt)