Fluid Mechanics

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Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics, and strong focus on effective learning. The text enables the gradual development of confidence in problem solving. Each important concept is introduced in easy-to-understand terms before more complicated examples are discussed. Continuing this book's tradition of extensive real-world applications, this latest edition includes more Fluid in the News case study boxes in each chapter, new problem types, an increased number of real-world photos, and additional videos to augment the text material and help generate interest in the topic. Example problems have been updated and numerous new photographs, figures, and graphs have been included. In addition, there are 150 videos designed to aid and enhance comprehension, support visualization skill building and engage users more deeply with the material and concepts.

Product Details

Introduction 1 Learning Objectives 1 1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3 1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 4 1.2.1 Systems of Units 7 1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11 1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11 1.5 Ideal Gas Law 12 1.6 Viscosity 14 1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20 1.8 Vapor Pressure 23 1.9 Surface Tension 24 1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27 1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29 References 30 Review Problems 31 Conceptual Questions 31 Problems 31 2 Fluid Statics 40 Learning Objectives 40 2.1 Pressure at a Point 40 2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 42 2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 43 2.4 Standard Atmosphere 49 2.5 Measurement of Pressure 50 2.6 Manometry 52 2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 57 2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 59 2.9 Pressure Prism 65 2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 68 2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 70 2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 74 2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 79 References 80 Review Problems 80 Conceptual Questions 81 Problems 81 3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics?The Bernoulli Equation 101 Learning Objectives 101 3.1 Newton's Second Law 101 3.2 F _ ma along a Streamline 104 3.3 F _ ma Normal to a Streamline 108 3.4 Physical Interpretation 110 3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 113 3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 117 3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 131 3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 134 3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 139 References 141 Review Problems 141 Conceptual Questions 141 Problems 141 4 Fluid Kinematics 157 Learning Objectives 157 4.1 The Velocity Field 157 4.2 The Acceleration Field 166 4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 175 4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 176 4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 188 References 189 Review Problems 189 Conceptual Questions 189 Problems 190 5 Finite Control Volume Analysis 199 Learning Objectives 199 5.1 Conservation of Mass?The Continuity Equation 200 5.2 Newton's Second Law?The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 213 5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics?The Energy Equation 236 5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics?Irreversible Flow 253 5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 253 References 254 Review Problems 255 Conceptual Questions 255 Problems 255 6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 276 Learning Objectives 276 6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 277 6.2 Conservation of Mass 282 6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 288 6.4 Inviscid Flow 292 6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286 6.5.1 Uniform Flow 300 6.5.2 Source and Sink 301 6.5.3 Vortex 303 6.5.4 Doublet 306 6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 308 6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 318 6.8 Viscous Flow 319 6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids 321 6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 331 6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 332 References 333 Review Problems 334 Conceptual Questions 334 Problems 334 7 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling 346 Learning Objectives 346 7.1 Dimensional Analysis 347 7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 349 7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 350 7.4 Some Additional Comments About Dimensional Analysis 355 7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 359 7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 360 7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 364 7.8 Modeling and Similitude 368 7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 374 7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 384 7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 387 References 388 Review Problems 388 Conceptual Questions 389 Problems 389 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes 400 Learning Objectives 400 8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 401 Developed Flow 405 8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 407 8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 416 8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 426 8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 445 8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 459 8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 465 References 467 Review Problems 468 Conceptual Questions 468 Problems 468 9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies 480 Learning Objectives 480 9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 481 9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 489 9.3 Drag 512 9.3.1 Friction Drag 513 9.4 Lift 528 9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541 References 542 Review Problems 543 Conceptual Questions 543 Problems 544 10 Open-Channel Flow 554 Learning Objectives 554 10.1 General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 555 10.2 Surface Waves 556 10.3 Energy Considerations 561 10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 566 10.5 Gradually Varied Flow 575 10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 576 10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 589 References 590 Review Problems 591 Conceptual Questions 591 Problems 591 11 Compressible Flow 601 Learning Objectives 601 11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 602 11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 607 11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 610 11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 614 11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 631 11.6 Analogy between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 655 11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 657 11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 658 References 661 Review Problems 662 Conceptual Questions 662 Problems 662 12 Turbomachines 667 Learning Objectives 667 12.1 Introduction 668 12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 669 12.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations 673 12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 675 12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 688 12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 693 12.7 Fans 695 12.8 Turbines 695 12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 707 12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 713 References 715 Review Problems 715 Conceptual Questions 715 Problems 716 A Computational fluid dynamics 725 B Physical Properties of Fluids 737 C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 742 D Compressible Flow graphs For an Ideal Gas (k _ 1.4) 744 Answers ANS-1 Index I-1 Video Index 000

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