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Food Processing
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors, xi 1 Principles of Food Processing, 1 Sung Hee Park, Buddhi P. Lamsal, and V.M. Balasubramaniam 1.1 Processing of foods: an introduction, 1 1.2 Unit operations in food processing, 2 1.3 Thermophysical properties, microbial aspects, and other considerations in food processing, 4 1.4 Common food preservation/processing technologies, 7 1.5 Other food processing/preservation technologies, 12 1.6 Emerging issues and sustainability in food processing, 13 1.7 Conclusion, 13 2 Thermal Principles and Kinetics, 17 Prabhat Kumar and K.P. Sandeep 2.1 Introduction, 17 2.2 Methods of thermal processing, 17 2.3 Microorganisms, 20 2.4 Thermal kinetics, 21 2.5 Thermal process establishment, 24 2.6 Thermal process calculation, 26 2.7 Thermal process validation, 28 2.8 Process monitoring and control, 29 2.9 Emerging processing technologies, 29 2.10 Future trends, 30 3 Separation and Concentration Technologies in Food Processing, 33 Yves Pouliot, Valerie Conway, and Pierre-Louis Leclerc 3.1 Introduction, 33 3.2 Physical separation of food components, 34 3.3 Processes involving phase separation, 37 3.4 Membrane separations, 46 3.5 Sustainability of separation technologies in food processing, 57 4 Dehydration, 61 Robert H. Driscoll 4.1 Introduction, 61 4.2 Drying and food quality, 61 4.3 Hot air drying, 62 4.4 Drying theory, 67 4.5 Drying equipment, 71 4.6 Analysis of dryers, 75 4.7 Sustainability, 77 4.8 Conclusion, 77 5 Chilling and Freezing of Foods, 79 Stephen J. James and Christian James 5.1 Introduction to the food cold chain, 79 5.2 Effect of refrigeration on food safety and quality, 79 5.3 Blanching, 83 5.4 Principles of refrigeration systems, 84 5.5 Heat transfer during chilling and freezing, 86 5.6 Chilling and freezing systems, 87 5.7 Chilled and frozen storage systems, 92 5.8 Chilled and frozen transport systems, 93 5.9 Refrigerated retail display systems, 95 5.10 Recommended temperatures, 99 5.11 Refrigeration and the environment, 100 5.12 Specifying, designing, and commissioning refrigeration systems, 101 5.13 Conclusion, 102 6 Fermentation and Enzyme Technologies in Food Processing, 107 Ali Demirci, Gulten Izmirlioglu, and Duygu Ercan 6.1 Introduction, 107 6.2 Fermentation culture requirements, 108 6.3 Fermentation technologies, 112 6.4 Downstream processing, 114 6.5 Fermented foods, 117 6.6 Enzyme applications, 123 6.7 Sustainability, 131 6.8 Concluding remarks and future trends, 131 7 Alternative Food Processing Technologies, 137 Hudaa Neetoo and Haiqiang Chen 7.1 Introduction, 137 7.2 Alternative thermal processing technologies, 137 7.3 Alternative non-thermal processing technologies, 144 7.4 Sustainability and energy efficiency of processing methods, 159 7.5 Conclusion, 160 8 Nanotechnology for Food: Principles and Selected Applications, 171 Sundaram Gunasekaran 8.1 Introduction, 171 8.2 Biosensing, 172 8.3 Packaging, 191 8.4 Nanotechnology and sustainability, 198 8.5 Summary, 199 9 Sustainability and Environmental Issues in Food Processing, 207 Fionnuala Murphy, Kevin McDonnell, and Colette C. Fagan 9.1 Introduction, 207 9.2 Sustainable food processing drivers, 207 9.3 Environmental impact of food processing, 210 9.4 Green technologies: examples in the food processing industry, 213 9.5 Environmental sustainability assessment methods, 214 9.6 Conclusion, 227 10 Food Safety and Quality Assurance, 233 Tonya C. Schoenfuss and Janet H. Lillemo 10.1 Introduction, 233 10.2 Elements of total quality management, 233 10.3 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, 235 10.4 Sanitary processing conditions, 236 10.5 Supporting prerequisite programs, 242 10.6 Product quality assurance, 245 10.7 Conclusion, 246 11 Food Packaging, 249 Joongmin Shin and Susan E.M. Selke 11.1 Introduction, 249 11.2 Functions of food packaging, 249 11.3 Packaging systems, 250 11.4 Materials for food packaging, 251 11.5 Other packaging types, 263 11.6 Sustainable food packaging, 268 12 Food Laws and Regulations, 275 Barbara Rasco 12.1 Introduction, 275 12.2 The regulatory status of food ingredients and additives, 276 12.3 Adulteration and misbranding, 276 12.4 The global food trade: risk from adulterated and misbranded foods, 279 12.5 US Department of Agriculture programs, 280 12.6 Environmental Protection Agency programs, 283 12.7 The Food Safety Modernization Act, 283 12.8 Summary, 291 13 Crops ? Cereals, 293 Kent D. Rausch and Vijay Singh 13.1 Introduction, 293 13.2 Industrial corn processing for food uses, 293 13.3 Industrial wheat processing for food uses, 300 13.4 Sustainability of corn and wheat processing, 302 14 Crops ? Legumes, 305 George Amponsah Annor, Zhen Ma, and Joyce Irene Boye 14.1 Introduction, 305 14.2 Technologies involved in legume processing, 306 14.3 Traditional processing technologies, 307 14.4 Modern processing technologies, 310 14.5 Ingredients from legumes, 312 14.6 Novel applications, 329 14.7 Conclusion, 331 15 Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Beverages, 339 Jose I. Reyes-De-Corcuera, Renee M. Goodrich-Schneider, Sheryl Barringer, and Miguel A. Landeros-Urbina 15.1 Introduction, 339 15.2 Juices, 341 15.3 Nectars, 356 15.4 Clean-in-place, 358 15.5 Conclusion, 360 16 Fruits and Vegetables ? Processing Technologies and Applications, 363 Nutsuda Sumonsiri and Sheryl A. Barringer 16.1 Raw materials, 363 16.2 Basic processing, 369 17 Milk and Ice Cream Processing, 383 Maneesha S. Mohan, Jonathan Hopkinson, and Federico Harte 17.1 Introduction, 383 17.2 Physical and chemical properties of milk constituents, 383 17.3 Milk handling, 386 17.4 Dairy product processing, 391 17.5 US regulations for milk and milk products, 400 17.6 Sustainability of the dairy industry, 402 17.7 Conclusion, 402 18 Dairy ? Fermented Products, 405 R.C. Chandan 18.1 Introduction, 405 18.2 Consumption trends, 406 18.3 Production of starters for fermented dairy foods, 406 18.4 Biochemical basis of lactic fermentation for flavor and texture generation, 410 18.5 Yogurt, 410 18.6 Cultured (or sour) cream, 422 18.7 Cheeses, 424 18.8 Sustainability efforts in whey processing, 431 19 Eggs and Egg Products Processing, 437 Jianping Wu 19.1 Introduction, 437 19.2 Shell egg formation, 437 19.3 Structure of eggs, 438 19.4 Chemical composition of eggs, 440 19.5 Shell egg processing, 441 19.6 Further processing of eggs and egg products, 444 19.7 Liquid egg products, 445 19.8 Pasteurization, 446 19.9 Desugarization, 448 19.10 Dehydration, 449 19.11 Egg further processing (value-added processing), 449 19.12 Sustainability, 450 19.13 Conclusion, 450 20 Fats and Oils ? Plant Based, 457 Amy S. Rasor and Susan E. Duncan 20.1 Introduction, 457 20.2 Sources, composition, and uses of plant-based fats and oils, 457 20.3 Properties of plant-based fats and oils, 460 20.4 Nutritional areas of interest, 461 20.5 Degradation of plant-based fats and oils, 462 20.6 General handling considerations, 463 20.7 Recovery of oils from their source materials, 463 20.8 Refining, 466 20.9 Modification of plant-based fats and oils, 469 20.10 Packaging and postprocessing handling, 473 20.11 Margarine processing, 473 20.12 Mayonnaise processing, 476 20.13 Sustainability, 477 21 Fats and Oils ? Animal Based, 481 Stephen L. Woodgate and Johan T. van der Veen 21.1 Introduction, 481 21.2 Raw materials, 481 21.3 Land animals, 482 21.4 Processing methods, 484 21.5 EU legislation, 487 21.6 Safety, 488 21.7 Characteristics and quality, 490 21.8 Applications, 493 21.9 Health aspects, 496 21.10 Sustainability, 497 21.11 Conclusion, 497 22 Aquatic Food Products, 501 Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Barbara Rasco, and Gleyn Bledsoe 22.1 Introduction, 501 22.2 Aquatic plants and animals as food, 501 22.3 Cultivation, harvesting, and live handling ? reducing stress and maintaining quality, 502 22.4 Animal welfare issues in fisheries, 507 22.5 Harvesting methods and effect on quality, 507 22.6 Reducing stress in live handling, 508 22.7 Fishing methods, 510 22.8 Refrigerated products, 514 22.9 Freezing and frozen products, 515 22.10 Surimi and surimi analog products, 520 22.11 Curing, brining, smoking, and dehydration, 521 22.12 Additives and edible coatings, 524 22.13 Roes and caviar, 525 22.14 Other non-muscle tissues used as food, 528 22.15 Fish meal and protein hydrolyzates, and fish oil, 530 22.16 Sustainability, 531 22.17 Summary, 532 23 Meats ? Beef and Pork Based, 535 Robert Maddock 23.1 Introduction, 535 23.2 Beef and pork characteristics and quality, 535 23.3 General categories of beef and pork processing, 537 23.4 Equipment needed in beef and pork processing, 545 23.5 Beef and pork processing and HACCP, 547 23.6 Sustainability, 547 24 Poultry Processing and Products, 549 Douglas P. Smith 24.1 Poultry processing, 549 24.2 Turkey processing, 562 24.3 Duck processing, 562 24.4 Microbiology and food safety, 563 24.5 Sustainable poultry production and processing, 564 24.6 Conclusion, 565 Index, 567

About the Author

About the Authors Dr Stephanie Clark is Associate Director of the Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center and Associate Professor Food Science & Human Nutrition at Iowa State University. Dr Stephanie Jung is Associate Professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Iowa State University. Dr Buddhi Lamsal is Associate Professor, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University.

Reviews

As a hands-on guide to the essential processingprinciples and their applications, covering the theoretical andapplied aspects of food processing in one accessible volume, thisbook is a valuable tool for food industry professionals across allmanufacturing sectors, and serves as a relevant primary orsupplemental text for students of food science. (Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 1October 2014)

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