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Forensic Psychology


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Table of Contents

List of Contributors Note Part I: Context: 1. Introduction (Graham J. Towl, Durham University) Justice Expert Controversies Thinking about Ethics Developmental Perspectives Offender Profiling: Smoke and Mirrors? Witnesses Psychological Assessment Critical Psychology Drugs Justice Restored References 2. The Justice System in England and Wales (David Faulkner, University of Oxford) What Justice Means The Criminal Justice System What Is a Crime? Measurement of Crime The Criminal Justice Process The Sentencing Framework The Criminal Courts Police and Policing The Crown Prosecution Service Prisons and the Prison Service Probation Youth Justice Home Office Ministry of Justice Law Officers Department Other National Bodies Some Special Subjects Conclusions Further Reading References Notes 3. Community Services for Children and Young People (Kerry Baker, University of Oxford) Introduction Youth Justice in the UK Characteristics and Needs of Young People Who Offend Framework for Practice Interventions and Services Critical debates Resources and Multi-Agency Working Conclusions Further Reading References Notes 4. Expert Testimony (Brian R. Clifford, University of Aberdeen) Introduction Who and What Is an Expert? The Controversial Nature of Expert Evidence Junk Science The Problem of the Ultimate Issue Battle of the Experts Alternatives and Antidotes to Adversarial Expert Testimony Conclusions Further Reading References 5. Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychological Policy and Practice (Graham Towl, Durham University) Philosophical Roots Ethical Guidance for Professionals Power Relationships Conclusions Further Reading References Part II: Evidence-based Practice: 6. The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research and Forensic Applications (Robert A. Schug, University of Southern California, Yu Gao,University of Southern California, Andrea L. Glenn, University of Southern California, Melissa Peskin, University of Southern California, Yaling Yang, UCLA and Adrian Raine, University of Pennsylvania) The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research Genetics Neuroimaging Neurology Neuropsychology Psychophysiology Endocrinology Moral Development Nutrition Forensic Applications of Developmental Neurobiological Research Conclusions Further Reading References 7. The Developmental Evidence Base: Prevention (David P. Farrington, University of Cambridge) Introduction Family-based Prevention School-based Prevention Peer Programmes Skills Training Communities That Care Recent UK Developments Conclusions Further Reading References 8. The Developmental Evidence Base: Psychosocial Research (David P. Farrington, University of Cambridge) Introduction Individual Factors Family Factors Social Factors Conclusions Further Reading References 9. The Developmental Evidence Base: Desistance (Lila Kazemian, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York and David P. Farrington, University of Cambridge) Current State of Knowledge on Desistance Unresolved Issues in Desistance Research Conclusions Further Reading References Note 10. Offender Profiling (David A. Crighton, Ministry of Justice and Durham University) Introduction Historical Development Current Approaches to Offender Profiling Current Developments Profiling Databases The Evidence Base for Profiling Practice Issues Conclusions Further Reading References Notes 11. Eyewitness Testimony (Lorraine Hope, University of Portsmouth) Eyewitness Identification Performance: Experimental Research and the Real World The Witnessed Event Between the Witnessed Event and Identification Task Intermediate Recognition Tasks The Identification Task Identifications from CCTV Procedural Guidelines Relating to Suspect Identification in the UK The Eyewitness in Court Conclusions Further Reading References 12. Children as Witnesses (Graham Davies, University of Leicester and Kathy Pezdek, Claremont Graduate University) Definition of Memory Suggestibility and False Memory Factors that Affect the Suggestibility of Children s Memory Children s True and False Autobiographical Memory Guidelines for Effective Child Witness Interviewing Child Witnesses in Court Conclusions References 13. Witness Interviewing (David La Rooy, University of Abertay and Coral Dando, University of Leicester) Introduction Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Forgetting Reminiscence Encoding Specificity Suggestibility and False Memory Witness Interviewing in the UK Further Reading References 14. Victims of Crime: Towards a Psychological Perspective (Werner Greve, University of Hildesheim and Cathleen Kappes, University of Hildesheim) Brightening the Dark Figure: Descriptive Victimology Explaining Victimisation: Between Probabilities and Blame Recognising the Suffering: Consequences of Victimisation Coping with Criminal Victimisation: Towards a Theoretical Integration Perspectives for Intervention and Research References Notes 15. Jury Decision Making (Andreas Kapardis, University of Cyprus) Introduction: The Jury Idea The Notion of an Impartial and Fair Jury: A Critical Appraisal Methods for Studying Juries/Jurors Selecting Jurors The Jury Foreperson Jury Deliberation Models of Jury Decision Making Reforming the Jury to Remedy Some of Its Problems Alternatives to Trial by Jury Conclusions References Notes 16. Assessment (David A. Crighton, Ministry of Justice and Durham University) Conceptual Issues in Assessment Psychological Assessment Data Gathering Data Analysis Clinical Judgements and Biases Conclusions Further Reading References Notes 17. Risk Assessment (David A. Crighton, Ministry of Justice and Durham University) Definitional Issues Key Principles in Risk Assessment Limitations of Risk Assessment Communicating Risk Assessments Effectively Decision Making about Risks Managing Risk Further Reading References Notes 18. Aspects of Diagnosed Mental Illness and Offending (David Pilgrim, University of Central Lancashire) The Social Context of Rule Transgressions: Normal and Abnormal Offenders Overlaps and Tensions between Psychiatric and Psychological Knowledge Psychological and Psychiatric Approaches to Mental Illness in Forensic Settings The Problematic Relationship between Diagnosed Mental Illness and Risk Conclusions Further Reading References 19. Mentally Disordered Offenders: Intellectual Disability (William R. Lindsay, Carstairs State Hospital and University of Abertay and John L. Taylor, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Trust and University of Northumbria) The Context of Practice in Forensic Learning Disabilities Mental Health Legislation Learning Disability and Crime Applications of Psychology to Processes within the Justice System Working with Offenders with ID Interventions with Offenders with ID Summary and Conclusions References 20. Mental Disordered Offenders: Personality Disorder (Richard Howard, University of Nottingham and Conor Duggan, University of Nottingham) Issues Surrounding the Concept of Personality Disorder Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorder Assessment of Psychopathy Measures of Interpersonal Style Practical Considerations Summary: Assessment of Personality Disorder Procedural Recommendations in Assessing Personality Disorder Treatment of Personality Disorder: Some Caveats Treatment Issues Personality Disorder and Offending Conclusions and Implications for the Future Further Reading References Notes 21. The Trauma of Being Violent (Ceri Evans, Canterbury Regional Forensic Psychiatric Service, New Zealand) Introduction Empirical Evidence Clinical and Legal Implications Conclusions References Note 22. Substance Use Disorders (Michael Gossop, Bethlehem Hospital and Institute of Psychiatry London) Consumption Behaviours, Problems, and Dependence Drugs and Crime Assessment of Substance Use Disorders Management of Detoxification Treatment Further Complications Further Reading References Notes 23. Children Who Physically or Sexually Harm Others (Kevin Browne, University of Nottingham and Shihning Chou, University of Nottingham) Extent of Violent Offences by Children Extent of Sexual Offences by Children Characteristics of Antisocial and Violent Children The Development of Antisocial Behaviour in Children Need for Early Intervention Conclusions Further Reading References 24. Sexually Harmful Adults (Belinda Brooks-Gordon, Birkbeck University of London) Who and What Is a Sexually Harmful Adult? Prevalence and Incidence of Sexually Harmful Behaviours Theories of Sexually Harmful Behaviour Assessing the Risk of Sexually Harmful Adults Interventions for Sexually Harmful Adults Measuring Interventions Past Meta-analyses of Interventions with Sexually Harmful Adults Improving the Quality of Treatment Outcome Cluster Randomisation When the Sex Offender Is Not Sexually Harmful The Politicisation of Sexual Harm Sexual Harm and the Culture of Fear Conclusions Further Reading References Notes 25. Suicide and Self-Injury in Offenders (Jenny Shaw, University of Manchester and Naomi Humber, University of Manchester) Suicide in the General Population Background Suicide in the Prison Population Limitations of Prison Suicide Research Suicide in Community Offenders Suicide in Police Custody Pre- and Post-Release Planning from Criminal Justice Agencies Self-injury in Offenders Risk Factors for Self-Injury in Offenders Specific Subgroups of Offenders Assessing Risk Prevention Diversion from the Criminal Justice System Interventions and Management of Self-Injury Conclusions Further Reading References Note 26. Restorative Justice as a Psychological Treatment: Healing Victims, Reintegrating Offenders (Lawrence W. Sherman, University of Cambridge and Heather Strang, University of Cambridge) Introduction Varieties of Restorative Justice Theories of Change for Victims and Offenders Delivering RJ Conferencing Research on Restorative Justice: The Gold Standard Effects of RJ Conferencing on Offenders Effects of RJ Conferencing on Victims Evidence on Other RJ Options RJ and Forensic Psychology Further Reading References Notes 27. Concluding Themes: Psychological Perspectives and Futures (Graham J. Towl (Durham University) Introduction Contextual Themes Psychological Perspectives Futures Index

About the Author

Professor Graham J. Towl is Principal of St Cuthberta s Society and Professor in the Department of Psychology at Durham University. He was formerly the Chief Psychologist in the Ministry of Justice, and is a recipient of the British Psychological Society award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Psychology. He was the first chair of the British Psychological Societya s renamed Division of Forensic Psychology. He is the editor of Psychological Research in Prisons (2006) and co-author of Psychology in Prisons, 2nd edition (2008) and co-editor ofA the Dictionary of Forensic Psychology (2008). Professor David A. Crighton is acting Chief Psychologist in the Ministry of Justice and visiting Professor of Forensic Psychology at Roehampton University London.A Professor Crightona s main research interests are in the areas of risk assessment, forensic mental health and neuropsychology. He is co-author of Psychology in Prisons, 2nd edition (2008) and co-editor the Dictionary of Forensic Psychology (2008).

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