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This new edition of Forensic Science: The Basics provides a fundamental background in forensic science as well as criminal investigation and court testimony. It describes how various forms of data are collected, preserved, and analyzed, and also explains how expert testimony based on the analysis of forensic evidence is presented in court. The book addresses knowledge of the natural and physical sciences while introducing readers to the application of science to the justice system. Each chapter begins by presenting a set of learning objectives, a mini glossary, and acronyms. The book is also structured so that each chapter can stand on its own, allowing for continuous or selected reading and study. The Third Edition includes: * Fully updated chapters to reflect current best practices * Three new chapters on use of detector dogs in forensic science, forensic engineering, and digital evidence and computer forensics * Case studies throughout that apply concepts to real-world examples The third edition of Forensic Science: The Basics is an ideal starting point for students with a basic science background but no experience in forensic science. It reinforces basic science knowledge while presenting the foundational aspects of forensic science theory and practice.
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Table of Contents

FORENSIC SCIENCE AND INVESTIGATION Introduction to Forensic Science Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is Forensic Science? History and Development of Forensic Science What Is a Forensic Scientist? The United States Forensic Science System Other Forensic Science Systems The Organization of Forensic Science Laboratories Examination of the Forensic Sciences by Outside Organizations Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Crime Scene Investigation Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Crime Scene as Recent History Crime Scene Investigation Process Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Nature of Evidence Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Classification of Evidence Positive and Negative Controls Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web TOOLS OF THE TRADE Separating Complex Mixtures Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Physical Separation of Mixtures Solid-Phase Extractions Chromatography Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Light and Matter Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is Light? Light as a Wave: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Properties of Waves Energy of Light: The Photon Interactions of Light Energy and Matter Spectrophotometer Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrophotometry Infrared Spectrophotometry Mass Spectrometry Summary Test Yourself Further Readings Helpful Websites Microscopy Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Lens: How Objects Are Magnified Compound Microscope Modifications of the Compound Microscope Electron Microscopy Summary Test Yourself Laboratory Activities Further Readings On the Web Detector Dogs as Forensic Tools Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Scenarios Forensic Tool: Canine Olfaction Summary Test Yourself References On the Web Digital Evidence, Computer Forensics, and Investigation Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Challenges Physical versus Virtual Crimes Computer Crime Criminal Law Computer Crime Investigation Wireless and Handheld Devices Digital Cell Phone and Handheld Investigation Computer Forensics Legal Proceedings Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Forensic Engineering Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Engineering Profession Forensic Engineer Forensic Engineering Case Studies Accident Reconstruction Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web PATTERNS AND IMPRESSIONS Fingerprints and Other Impressions Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction: A Note on Pattern Evidence Quest for a Reliable Method of Personal Identification Origin of Fingerprints Anatomy of Fingerprints Detection and Visualization of Fingerprints Comparison of Fingerprints Comparison of Single Fingerprints Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS and IAFIS) Common Questions about Fingerprints Other Impressions: Footwear and Tire Treads Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Questioned Documents Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is a Questioned Document? Questioned Document Examiner Handwriting Analysis Erasures, Obliterations, and Alterations Typewriters, Photocopiers, and Computer Printers Paper Examination Ink Examinations Physical Matches on Torn Paper Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Firearms and Toolmarks Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Firearms Identification Anatomy of a Live Round (Cartridge) Examination of Firearms Evidence Digital Imaging Systems for Ammunition Distance-of-Fire Determinations Toolmarks Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web FORENSIC BIOLOGY Forensic Pathology Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction How to Become a Forensic Pathologist Investigation of Death: Coroners and Medical Examiners Death Investigation Process Postmortem Interval (PMI): Time of Death Exhumations Teamwork Approach Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Anthropology and Odontology Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Human Skeleton Identification of Skeletal Remains Individualization of Human Bone Collection of Bones Forensic Odontology Summary Try It Yourself Activities Test Yourself Further Readings Helpful Websites Forensic Entomology Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Becoming a Forensic Entomologist PMI: The Life Cycle of the Blow Fly Decomposition of a Body after Death Factors that Affect PMI Entomological Investigation and Evidence Collection Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Serology Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Blood Analysis of Blood Other Biological Fluids and Stains Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Summary Appendix A: Trigonometry Calculation for Locating a Bloodstain Try It Yourself Test Yourself Further Readings Useful Websites DNA Typing Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is DNA? Collection and Preservation of DNA Evidence History of DNA Typing Current Method of DNA Typing: STRs Mitochondrial DNA CODIS Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Hair Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is Hair? Hair Growth Hair Color Structure of Human Hair Human versus Nonhuman Hairs Hair Treatment and Damage Comparison of Human Hairs What Can Be Determined from the Structure of Hair? DNA Analysis of Hair Hair as a Source of Drugs Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web FORENSIC CHEMISTRY Illicit Drugs Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Illicit Drugs Control of Illicit Drugs in the United States Analysis of Illicit Drugs Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Forensic Toxicology Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Forensic Toxicology Becoming a Forensic Toxicologist Principles of Pharmacology Pharmacology and Toxicology of Ethyl Alcohol Absorption of Ethanol Drunk Driving Laws Field Sobriety Testing Measurement of BAC Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Fibers, Paints, and Other Polymers Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is a Polymer? Textile Fibers Types of Fibers Fiber Morphology Analysis of Synthetic Fibers Chemical Analysis of Fibers Interpretation of Fiber Evidence Paints and Other Coatings Types of Paint How Cars Are Painted Collection of Paint Evidence Analysis of Paint Evidentiary Value of Paint Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Glass and Soil Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronym Introduction Glass Glass as Forensic Evidence Soil Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web Fires and Explosions Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction What Is a Fire? Extinguishing a Fire Incendiary Fires Investigation of a Fire Role of Accelerants Analysis of Fire Scene Evidence Analysis of Accelerants Explosions Investigation of Bombing Scenes Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web LEGAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC SCIENCE Presentation of Forensic Evidence in Court Learning Objectives Mini Glossary Acronyms Introduction Admissibility of Evidence Laboratory Reports Expert Testimony Summary Test Yourself Further Readings On the Web

About the Author

Jay A. Siegel holds a PhD in analytical chemistry from The George Washington University and received its Distinguished Faculty Scholar award in 2009. He worked as a forensic chemist with the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences for three years before spending 25 years as a professor and director of the forensic science program in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. In 2003 he went to Indiana University-Purdue University as founder and director of the forensic and investigative sciences program in the School of Science. In 2008 he was named the chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. He retired in 2012. Dr. Siegel is the co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management: An International Journal and Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, the co-author of Fundamentals of Forensic Science, and the author of Forensic Science: A Beginner's Guide. He has testified over 200 times in federal and military courts, and was named distinguished fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 2009. Kathy Mirakovits teaches forensic science and physics at Portage Northern High School in Portage, Michigan, and physics at Kalamazoo Valley Community College in Michigan. She holds an MS in science education from Western Michigan University. She has taught general science, physical science, chemistry, biology, earth science, and physics at the high school and two-year college level for 25 years. She also conducts workshops across the United States for teachers who wish to learn the application of forensic science in a school curriculum. She has developed numerous forensic science educational products and has led workshops at the National Science Teachers Association. Kathy has served as president of the Michigan Chapter of the American Association of Physics Teachers and as a curriculum writer for the Michigan Department of Education. She is currently the high school director for the Michigan Science Teachers Association. She received the RadioShack Science Teaching Award and is a state finalist for the Presidential Award for Excellence in Math and Science Teaching.

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