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Foundations for Global Health Practice


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Table of Contents

List of Figures, Tables, and Boxes xix Preface xxii About the Author xxv Contributors xxvii Acknowledgments xlv Introduction xlvii Part I Global Health Concepts 1 Developing a Global Perspective 3 Lori DiPrete Brown Sharing Perspectives in a Diverse Learning Community 5 Sources of Global Health Information 7 Literature and the Arts 21 Chapter Summary 24 Review Questions 25 Key Terms 25 References 25 2 What Is Global Health? 27 Lori DiPrete Brown Global Health: An Evolving Concept 28 Definitions of Global Health 33 What Are the Challenges to Human Health? 38 Measuring Global Health Status 39 Social Determinants of Health and the Social-Ecological Model 46 Chapter Summary 51 Review Questions 52 Key Terms 52 References 53 3 Global Health Care Systems and Universal Health Care 57 Lori DiPrete Brown Health Systems and How They Work 58 Universal Health Care 65 Chapter Summary 69 Review Questions 69 Key Terms 69 References 69 4 Global Health Policy and the Sustainable Development Goals 71 Lori DiPrete Brown From Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals 72 The Sustainable Development Goals 76 Chapter Summary 80 Key Terms 81 Exercise: Young Leaders Speak Out 81 Review Questions 81 References 81 5 Global Health Challenges for the 21st Century 83 Sean McKee and Katherine Leach-Kemon What Is the Global Burden of Disease? 84 How to Access and Use GBD Findings 88 Main Findings from the GBD Study 91 Using the GBD to Inform Health Policy in the Coming Years 102 Chapter Summary 104 Key Terms 104 Review Questions 104 Suggested Reading 105 References 105 6 The Right to Health and a Framework Convention on Global Health 107 Eric A. Friedman, Fernanda Alonso, Ana Ayala, Andrew Hennessy-Strahs, and Sarah Roache The Right to Health 109 A Framework Convention on Global Health 111 Precedents and Examples of Governance for Global Health 116 Chapter Summary 119 Key Terms 120 Review Questions 120 Suggested Reading 120 References 120 7 Global Mental Health, Behavioral Medicine, and Wellness 125 Giuseppe Raviola Defining Global Mental Health, Behavioral Medicine, and Wellness 126 Burden of Illness and the Treatment Gap: The Need for Integration 128 Gaps in Governance, Policies, and Financing: The Need for Systems 131 Strategies for Program Design and Sustained Service Delivery: The Need to Strengthen Existing Health Systems 136 Global Health Worker Wellness: The Need for Professional and Personal Development 137 Conclusion 138 Chapter Summary 139 Review Questions 139 Key Terms 139 References 140 8 Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Health 143 Eric Hettler Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: Contextual Considerations 144 Chapter Summary 163 Key Terms 163 Review Questions 163 Suggested Reading 164 References 164 9 Food, Agriculture, and Nutrition 167 Michele Joseph Aquino Global Food System, Local Solutions 168 The Farm Spectrum 169 Introduction to Food Security 173 Waste and Wealth 178 Agricultural Technology and Public Health 180 Sustainability and Equity: Highlights from Successful Programs 184 Chapter Summary 186 Key Terms 187 Review Questions 187 Exercise: Thinking Critically about Genetically Engineered Crops 188 Suggested Reading 188 References 189 10 Climate and Health 193 Jonathan Patz and Evan DiPrete Brown What Is Climate Change? 194 Public Health Risks of Climate Change 196 Public Health Responses to Climate Change 204 Chapter Summary 208 Key Terms 208 Review Questions 209 References 209 11 Information Communication Technology and Health 217 Laura E. Jacobson and Alain B. Labrique The Landscape 218 Considerations 228 Conclusion 230 Chapter Summary 230 Key Terms 231 Review Questions 231 References 231 12 Scaling Up in Global Health 233 Richard Cash and Sophie Broach What Is Scale-Up? 234 The Story of BRAC: Experiences in Successfully Scaling Up Public Health Programs 236 Engaging in Global Health Practice with Scale in Mind 241 Chapter Summary 244 Key Terms 244 Review Questions 244 References 245 Part II Global Health Practice 13 Global Health Experiences 249 Katarina M. Grande and Lori DiPrete Brown Global Health Experiences: A Focus on Learning 250 Types of Global Health Experiences 251 Applying for and Funding Global Health Experiences 257 Chapter Summary 259 Activity: Develop a Country Profile 259 Key Terms 268 Suggested Reading and Resources 268 References 269 14 Global Health Competencies for the Health Sciences 271 Gabrielle A. Jacquet, Jessica Evert, and Kevin Wyne Background 272 Levels of Experience and Training 273 Timing of Experience 274 Scope of Practice 275 Additional Competencies 275 Chapter Summary 277 Case Study for Group Discussion 278 Key Terms 279 Suggested Resources 279 References 280 15 Working with Communities 281 Lori DiPrete Brown and Sophia Friedson-Ridenour Community-Based Participatory Research: Core Concepts 282 Insights for CBPR Practice: A Case Study from Ecuador 286 CBPR Methods and Global Health: A Mixed-Methods Approach 293 Chapter Summary 297 Review Questions 297 Key Terms 298 References 298 16 Transformative Engagement and Leadership for Global Health 299 C. Perry Dougherty A Framework for Transformative Leadership 301 Three Lenses of Reflection and Discernment 302 Historical and Cultural Context of Your Leadership 302 Centrality of Relationship 303 Skills of Transformative Engagement and Leadership 304 Practicing Transformative Engagement and Leadership: A Three-Part Exercise 308 Chapter Summary 311 Key Terms 312 Review Questions 312 Suggested Reading 312 References 313 17 Guidelines for Planning a Global Health Learning Experience 315 Sweta Shrestha Elements of a Global Health Field Course 316 Case Example: Nepal Global Field Course 322 Chapter Summary 329 Key Terms 329 Suggested Reading 329 18 Navigating Global Health for Student Organizations 331 Alexis Barnes and Alyssa Smaldino Students as Global Health Partners 332 Student Organizations and Harnessing the Power of Partnership 334 Structures of Accountability 338 Chapter Summary 340 Review Questions 340 Key Terms 340 Recommended Reading 341 References 341 19 Planning for Health and Safety 343 Katarina M. Grande Before You Go 343 While You Are There 346 Chapter Summary 349 Key Terms 349 Discussion and Practice Assignment 349 Suggested Reading 349 References 350 20 Global Health Professional Skills and Careers 351 Sharon Rudy and Angelina Gordon What Are the Various Careers in Global Health? 352 What Does Success Look Like? 353 What Are Employers Looking For? 355 How to Build Your Skills for the Road Ahead 357 Chapter Summary 363 Discussion Questions 364 Activity: Skills Inventory 364 Key Terms 367 Suggested Reading 368 References 368 Part III Global Health Perspectives 21 So You Want to Save the World? First, You've Got to Know It 371 Brian W. Simpson References 374 22 Since You Asked 375 Lori DiPrete Brown Honduras 375 Nicaragua 377 Guatemala 378 Your First Global Health Experience 379 23 Leadership Lessons from the Last Mile 381 Carrie Hessler-Radelet Walking "the Last Mile" with Daisy Duarte in Mozambique 381 Leadership Lessons 383 Recommended Reading 384 24 How Global Health Identity Politics Harms Local Communities 387 James Kassaga Arinaitwe Ebola Orphans in Africa Do Not Need Saviors 388 What It Means to Be an Orphan 388 Rethinking How to Provide Aid 389 Community versus Institution 390 Implications for the Future 390 References 391 25 Gender and Community Well-Being 393 Araceli Alonso and Teresa Langle de Paz Come on a Journey to Lunga Lunga 394 The Situation upon Arrival 394 Women as Agents 395 What Can Be Done? 397 What Happened: The Surface and the Layers 398 A Model to Replicate: Health by All Means 401 Key Terms 403 Recommended Reading 403 References 403 26 Strengthening Immunization Programs 405 James Conway Herd Immunity and Immunization Goals 406 Decision Making and Vaccine Hesitancy 406 Vaccine Access 408 Vaccine Development 409 Suggested Reading 410 References 411 27 HIV: US to Global Perspectives 413 Katarina M. Grande HIV Background 414 Strategies for Ending HIV 414 Working in HIV Globally and Locally 415 Suggested Reading 416 References 417 28 Tuberculosis and the Long and Winding Road toward a Global Health Career 419 Carolina Kwok Recommended Reading 422 References 422 29 Linking Research to Applied Field Work 423 Devy Emperador From Basic to Applied Research: The Public Health Laboratory Scientist 423 Public Health Laboratory in a Resource-Limited Setting 424 Conclusion 425 Recommended Reading 426 References 426 30 A Call to Surgeons to Advance Global Health 427 Girma Tefera Addressing the Surgical Workforce Shortage 428 The Way Forward: Partnerships 430 Recommended Reading 431 References 431 31 Stories and Balance 433 James F. Cleary Devastating Impacts 434 Balance 436 Recommended Reading 437 References 437 32 The Global Burden of Avoidable Childhood Blindness 439 Luxme Hariharan Discussion Questions 443 Recommended Reading 443 References 443 33 Global Health Nursing 445 Linda C. Baumann and Karen D. Solheim Global Perspective of Nursing 445 Contributions 446 Challenges 447 Resources 448 Insights 448 Reflective Questions 449 Suggested Reading 449 References 449 34 Contributions of Pharmacists in Global Public Health 451 Trisha Seys Ranola and Connie Kraus Suggested Reading 455 References 456 35 Reflections and Stepping-Stones to a Career in Global Health 457 Cindy Haq Family and Values 457 Medical School and Residency 458 Early International Experience 458 Negotiating Professional Responsibilities 459 Stepping-Stones 459 36 Global Health and Education 463 Nancy Kendall Suggested Reading and Resources 467 References 468 37 The Importance of Narrative to Global Health Research and Practice 469 Louise Penner References 473 38 The Urban Opportunity for Global Health 475 Jason Vargo Recommended Reading 479 References 479 39 Building Effective Health Systems in Transitional Societies 481 Augustino Ting Mayai Investments and Impacts in Health 481 Successful Practices: Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia 483 Successful Practices: Decentralization, Access, and Coordination in Rwanda 483 Ongoing Efforts in South Sudan 484 Lessons for South Sudan and Other Transitional Societies 485 References 486 40 Grand Challenges in Global Health and the Role of Universities 489 Keith Martin Universities as Partners in Global Health 489 The Consortium of Universities for Global Health 490 A Triple Challenge 491 Addressing the Neglected Foundation of Development 492 Priorities for Action 493 Conclusion 495 References 495 Glossary 496 Index 505

About the Author

Lori DiPrete Brown has been engaged in global health education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for fourteen years, where she serves as a Distinguished Faculty Associate in the School of Medicine and Public health and the School of Human Ecology. She is an Associate Director of the Global Health Institute at UW-Madison. DiPrete Brown began her career as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Honduras, where she lived and worked in a residential program for teenage girls who had been orphaned or abandoned during childhood. Her subsequent global health practice, research, teaching, writing and public speaking has focused on providing quality health care and social services that address the needs of women, children and historically marginalized populations in low-resource settings. DiPrete Brown has collaborated with international agencies including the U.S. Peace Corps, USAID, the Pan American Health Organization, WHO, Care, and Save the Children. She has worked with partners to strengthen systems of care fifteen countries around the world including Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Chile, Mexico, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Ethiopia. DiPrete Brown holds degrees from Yale University, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the Harvard Divinity School. In 2012, she was awarded the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Dean's Teaching Award for her contributions to global health education. She blogs about global health and social change, and has written a novel about her work with young women entitled Caminata: A Journey. Blog: http://globalhealthreflections.wordpress.com

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