Foundations of College Chemistry

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1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1 1.1 The Nature of Chemistry 2 1.2 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3 1.3 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5 1.4 Classifying Matter 7 Review 9 Review Questions 10 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 11 Answers to Practice Exercises 12 2 Standards for Measurement 13 2.1 Scientific Notation 14 2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 15 2.3 Significant Figures 16 2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 18 2.5 The Metric System 21 2.6 Dimensional Analysis: A Problem-Solving Method 27 2.7 Measurement of Temperature 30 2.8 Density 34 Review 37 Review Questions 38 Paired Exercises 39 Additional Exercises 41 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 43 3 Elements and Compounds 44 3.1 Elements 45 3.2 Introduction to the Periodic Table 49 3.3 Compounds and Formulas 52 Review 57 Review Questions 58 Paired Exercises 59 Additional Exercises 60 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 61 4 Properties of Matter 62 4.1 Properties of Substances 63 4.2 Physical and Chemical Changes 65 4.3 Learning to Solve Problems 68 4.4 Energy 68 4.5 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 70 4.6 Energy in the Real World 72 Review 74 Review Questions 75 Paired Exercises 76 Additional Exercises 77 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 78 Chapters 1?4 review 79 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 82 5.1 Dalton?s Model of the Atom 83 5.2 Electric Charge 84 5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 85 5.4 The Nuclear Atom 87 5.5 Isotopes of the Elements 89 5.6 Atomic Mass 92 Review 93 Review Questions 94 Paired Exercises 95 Additional Exercises 96 Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 97 6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 98 6.1 Common and Systematic Names 99 6.2 Elements and Ions 100 6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 103 6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 105 6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 109 6.6 Acids 111 Review 114 Review Questions 115 Paired Exercises 116 Additional Exercises 117 Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 118 Chapters 5?6 review 119 7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 121 7.1 The Mole 122 7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 126 7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 129 7.4 Calculating Empirical Formulas 133 7.5 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 135 Review 138 Review Questions, Paired Exercises 139 Additional Exercises 141 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 142 8 Chemical Equations 143 8.1 The Chemical Equation 144 8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 145 8.3 Types of Chemical Equations 150 8.4 Heat in Chemical Reactions 156 8.5 Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect 159 Review 161 Review Questions, Paired Exercises 163 Additional Exercises 165 Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 166 9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 167 9.1 Introduction to Stoichiometry 168 9.2 Mole?Mole Calculations 170 9.3 Mole?Mass Calculations 173 9.4 Mass?Mass Calculations 174 9.5 Limiting Reactant and Yield Calculations 176 Review 182 Review Questions, Paired Exercises 183 Additional Exercises 185 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 187 Chapters 7?9 review 188 10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 191 10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 192 10.2 The Bohr Atom 193 10.3 Energy Levels of Electrons 195 10.4 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 198 10.5 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 201 Review 206 Review Questions 207 Paired Exercises 208 Additional Exercises 210 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 211 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 212 11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 213 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 216 11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 217 11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 222 11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 224 11.6 Electronegativity 226 11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 229 11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 232 11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 234 11.10 Molecular Shape 235 Review 239 Review Questions 240 Paired Exercises 241 Additional Exercises 243 Challenge Exercises 244 Answers to Practice Exercises 245 Chapters 10?11 review 246 12 The Gaseous State of Matter 248 12.1 Properties of Gases 249 12.2 Boyle?s Law 252 12.3 Charles? Law 256 12.4 Avogadro?s Law 259 12.5 Combined Gas Laws 260 12.6 Ideal Gas Law 264 12.7 Dalton?s Law of Partial Pressures 267 12.8 Density of Gases 270 12.9 Gas Stoichiometry 270 Review 274 Review Questions 276 Paired Exercises 277 Additional Exercises 279 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 281 13 Liquids 282 13.1 States of Matter: A Review 283 13.2 Properties of Liquids 283 13.3 Boiling Point and Melting Point 286 13.4 Changes of State 288 13.5 Intermolecular Forces 290 13.6 Hydrates 295 13.7 Water, a Unique Liquid 297 Review 300 Review Questions 301 Paired Exercises 302 Additional Exercises 303 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 304 14 Solutions 305 14.1 General Properties of Solutions 306 14.2 Solubility 307 14.3 Rate of Dissolving Solids 311 14.4 Concentration of Solutions 312 14.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions 320 14.6 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 325 Review 327 Review Questions 328 Paired Exercises 329 Additional Exercises 332 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 333 Chapters 12?14 review 334 15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 337 15.1 Acids and Bases 338 15.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases 342 15.3 Salts 343 15.4 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 344 15.5 Introduction to pH 349 15.6 Neutralization 352 15.7 Writing Net Ionic Equations 354 15.8 Acid Rain 356 Review 357 Review Questions, Paired Exercises 359 Additional Exercises 361 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 362 16 Chemical Equilibrium 363 16.1 Rates of Reaction 364 16.2 Chemical Equilibrium 365 16.3 Le Chatelier?s Principle 366 16.4 Equilibrium Constants 373 16.5 Ion Product Constant for Water 374 16.6 Ionization Constants 376 16.7 Solubility Product Constant 378 16.8 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 381 Review 383 Review Questions 384 Paired Exercises 385 Additional Exercises 387 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 389 17 Oxidation?Reduction 390 17.1 Oxidation Number 391 17.2 Balancing Oxidation?Reduction Equations 395 17.3 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 398 17.4 Activity Series of Metals 401 17.5 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 403 Review 407 Review Questions 409 Paired Exercises 410 Additional Exercises 412 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 413 Chapters 15?17 review 414 18 Nuclear Chemistry 417 18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 418 18.2 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 421 18.3 Radioactive Disintegration Series 424 18.4 Measurement of Radioactivity 426 18.5 Nuclear energy 427 18.6 Mass?Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 433 18.7 Biological Effects of Radiation 434 Review 436 Review Questions 437 Paired Exercises 438 Additional Exercises 439 Challenge Exercises, Answers to Practice Exercises 440 19 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 441 19.1 The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry 442 19.2 Why Carbon? 442 19.3 Alkanes 445 19.4 Alkenes and Alkynes 452 19.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 456 19.6 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 459 19.7 Alcohols 461 19.8 Ethers 465 19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 467 19.10 Carboxylic Acids 469 19.11 Esters 471 19.12 Polymers?Macromolecules 473 Review 474 Review Questions, Paired Exercises 477 Additional Exercises 481 Answers to Practice Exercises 482 20 Introduction to Biochemistry 483 20.1 Chemistry in Living Organisms 484 20.2 Carbohydrates 484 20.3 Lipids 488 20.4 Amino Acids and Proteins 492 20.5 Enzymes 497 20.6 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and Genetics 499 Review 504 Review Questions and Exercises 505 Answers to Practice Exercises 507 Chapters 18?20 review 508 Appendices I. Mathematical and Review A-1 II. Using a Scientific Calculator A-10 III. Units of Measurement A-14 IV. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures A-15 V. Solubility Table A-16 VI. Answers to Selected Exercises A-17 VII. Answers to Putting It Together Review Exercises A-33 Glossary G-1 index I-1

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