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A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
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1 Design and relationships.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The orders: morphology and life cycles.- 1.2.1 Stauromedusae.- 1.2.2 Coronatae.- 1.2.3 Semaeostomeae.- 1.2.4 Rhizostomeae.- 1.3 Relationships and origins of the class and orders.- 2 Locomotion.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Mesoglea.- 2.2.1 Fibre composition.- 2.2.2 Mechanics.- 2.3 Muscle.- 2.3.1 General muscular anatomy.- 2.3.2 Fine structure of muscles.- 2.3.3 Physiological properties of muscles.- 2.4 Sensory receptors.- 2.4.1 Structure of the marginal sense organs.- 2.4.2 Photoreception.- 2.4.3 Equilibrium reception.- 2.4.4 Other sensory responses.- 2.5 Nervous system.- 2.5.1 Nervous system of medusae.- 2.5.2 Marginal centres.- 2.5.3 Structure and function of the motor nerve net.- 2.5.4 Diffuse nerve net.- 2.5.5 Nervous system of polyps.- 2.5.6 Transmitters.- 2.6 Locomotion.- 2.6.1 Physical dynamics of swimming.- 2.6.2 Nervous control of swimming.- 2.6.3 Locomotion of polyps.- 2.6.4 Locomotion of planulae.- 3 Feeding.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cnidae.- 3.2.1 Structure and classification.- 3.2.2 Formation and migration.- 3.2.3 Discharge.- 3.2.4 Toxins.- 3.2.5 Functions.- 3.3 Types of prey.- 3.3.1 Prey in diets of scyphomedusae.- 3.3.2 Prey of polyps.- 3.4 Contact with prey.- 3.4.1 Medusae encounter probabilities.- 3.4.2 Medusae attraction to prey.- 3.5 Feeding behaviour.- 3.5.1 Medusae prey capture.- 3.5.2 Polyp prey capture.- 3.5.3 Chemical induction of feeding.- 3.6 Feeding rates.- 3.6.1 Selection of prey types.- 3.6.2 Factors affecting feeding rates.- 4 Nutrition.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Units of intake.- 4.1.2 Dietary requirements.- 4.2 Digestion.- 4.2.1 Extracellular and intracellular digestion.- 4.2.2 Enzymes.- 4.2.3 Digestion rates.- 4.3 Circulation and translocation.- 4.3.1 Circulatory canals and ciliary currents.- 4.3.2 Endocytosis.- 4.3.3 Translocation.- 4.4 Uptake of dissolved organic material.- 4.5 Symbiosis.- 4.5.1 Identity and location of algal symbionts.- 4.5.2 Metabolic exchange between symbiont and host.- 4.5.3 Establishment and control of algal numbers.- 4.5.4 Ecological significance of symbiosis.- 5 Metabolism.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Definitions.- 5.1.2 Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.- 5.2 Factors affecting oxygen consumption.- 5.2.1 Body size.- 5.2.2 Muscular activity.- 5.2.3 Food.- 5.2.4 Temperature.- 5.2.5 Oxygen availability.- 5.2.6 Effects of symbionts.- 5.3 Nitrogen excretion 131 5.3.1 Factors affecting rates of excretion.- 5.3.1 Factors affecting rates of excretion.- 5.4 Osmotic and ionic regulation.- 5.4.1 Water content.- 5.4.2 Buoyancy.- 6 Reproduction.- 6.1 Synopsis.- 6.1.1 Types of reproduction and trade-offs.- 6.1.2 Genetics.- 6.2 Gametogenesis.- 6.2.1 Gonad formation.- 6.2.2 Gamete production.- 6.2.3 Fertilization.- 6.3 Larval development.- 6.3.1 Embryogenesis and planulae.- 6.3.2 Brooding.- 6.3.3 Settlement including metamorphosis.- 6.3.4 Direct development.- 6.4 Polyp.- 6.4.1 Budding.- 6.4.2 Cysts including podocysts.- 6.4.3 Strobilation.- 6.5 Ephyra.- 7 Growth.- 7.1 Measurement of growth.- 7.1.1 Units.- 7.1.2 Methods.- 7.2 Organic composition of scyphozoa.- 7.3 Growth curves.- 7.3.1 Laboratory data.- 7.3.2 Field data.- 7.3.3 Life span.- 7.4 Starvation and regeneration.- 7.4.1 Degrowth and regrowth.- 7.4.2 Regeneration.- 7.5 Conversion efficiencies.- 7.6 Dietary requirements.- 7.6.1 Energy budget.- 7.6.2 Food supply.- 8 Physical ecology.- 8.1 Biomass.- 8.1.1 Measurement.- 8.1.2 Production.- 8.2 Mortality and adaptation to physical factors.- 8.2.1 Temperature.- 8.2.2 Salinity.- 8.2.3 Pollution.- 8.2.4 Oxygen.- 8.3 Depth.- 8.3.1 Vertical distribution.- 8.3.2 Diel migration.- 8.3.3 Changes with life cycle.- 8.4 Aggregation and horizontal migration.- 8.5 Zoogeography.- 9 Biological interactions.- 9.1 Predation.- 9.1.1 Natural predators: planktonic.- 9.1.2 Natural predators: benthic.- 9.1.3 Fisheries.- 9.1.4 Transparency and pigmentation.- 9.2 Parasites.- 9.2.1 Larval trematodes and cestodes.- 9.2.2 Hyperiid amphipods.- 9.3 Associations.- 9.3.1 Associations with fish.- 9.4 Bioluminescence.- 9.4.1 Anatomy of luminescent structures.- 9.4.2 Chemical basis of luminescence.- 9.4.3 Control of luminescence.- 9.4.4 Ecological significance.- 9.5 Trophic relationships.- 9.5.1 Impact on prey populations.- 9.5.2 Competition.- 9.5.3 Trophic levels.- Appendix: Classification of extant scyphozoa.- References.

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