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A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa

Scyphozoa have attracted the attention of many types of people. Naturalists watch their graceful locomotion. Fishermen may dread the swarms which can prevent fishing or eat larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water if they are stung. People from some Asiatic countries eat the medusae. Comparative physiologists examine them as possibly simple models for the functioning of various systems. This book integrates data from those and other investigations into a functional biology of scyphozoa. It will emphasize the wide range of adaptive responses possible in these morphologically relatively simple animals. The book will concentrate on the research of the last 35 years, partly because there has been a rapid expansion of knowledge during that period, and partly because much of the previous work was summarized by books published between 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa were included in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses are also included in those monographs, as well as in a monograph on the scyphomedusae of the USSR published by Naumov (Naumov, 1961). Most impor- tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan workers has used as its 'bible' the monograph by F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. In spite of its restrictive title, his book reviews most of the information on the biology of scyphozoa up to that date.
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Table of Contents

1 Design and relationships.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The orders: morphology and life cycles.- 1.2.1 Stauromedusae.- 1.2.2 Coronatae.- 1.2.3 Semaeostomeae.- 1.2.4 Rhizostomeae.- 1.3 Relationships and origins of the class and orders.- 2 Locomotion.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Mesoglea.- 2.2.1 Fibre composition.- 2.2.2 Mechanics.- 2.3 Muscle.- 2.3.1 General muscular anatomy.- 2.3.2 Fine structure of muscles.- 2.3.3 Physiological properties of muscles.- 2.4 Sensory receptors.- 2.4.1 Structure of the marginal sense organs.- 2.4.2 Photoreception.- 2.4.3 Equilibrium reception.- 2.4.4 Other sensory responses.- 2.5 Nervous system.- 2.5.1 Nervous system of medusae.- 2.5.2 Marginal centres.- 2.5.3 Structure and function of the motor nerve net.- 2.5.4 Diffuse nerve net.- 2.5.5 Nervous system of polyps.- 2.5.6 Transmitters.- 2.6 Locomotion.- 2.6.1 Physical dynamics of swimming.- 2.6.2 Nervous control of swimming.- 2.6.3 Locomotion of polyps.- 2.6.4 Locomotion of planulae.- 3 Feeding.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cnidae.- 3.2.1 Structure and classification.- 3.2.2 Formation and migration.- 3.2.3 Discharge.- 3.2.4 Toxins.- 3.2.5 Functions.- 3.3 Types of prey.- 3.3.1 Prey in diets of scyphomedusae.- 3.3.2 Prey of polyps.- 3.4 Contact with prey.- 3.4.1 Medusae encounter probabilities.- 3.4.2 Medusae attraction to prey.- 3.5 Feeding behaviour.- 3.5.1 Medusae prey capture.- 3.5.2 Polyp prey capture.- 3.5.3 Chemical induction of feeding.- 3.6 Feeding rates.- 3.6.1 Selection of prey types.- 3.6.2 Factors affecting feeding rates.- 4 Nutrition.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Units of intake.- 4.1.2 Dietary requirements.- 4.2 Digestion.- 4.2.1 Extracellular and intracellular digestion.- 4.2.2 Enzymes.- 4.2.3 Digestion rates.- 4.3 Circulation and translocation.- 4.3.1 Circulatory canals and ciliary currents.- 4.3.2 Endocytosis.- 4.3.3 Translocation.- 4.4 Uptake of dissolved organic material.- 4.5 Symbiosis.- 4.5.1 Identity and location of algal symbionts.- 4.5.2 Metabolic exchange between symbiont and host.- 4.5.3 Establishment and control of algal numbers.- 4.5.4 Ecological significance of symbiosis.- 5 Metabolism.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Definitions.- 5.1.2 Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.- 5.2 Factors affecting oxygen consumption.- 5.2.1 Body size.- 5.2.2 Muscular activity.- 5.2.3 Food.- 5.2.4 Temperature.- 5.2.5 Oxygen availability.- 5.2.6 Effects of symbionts.- 5.3 Nitrogen excretion 131 5.3.1 Factors affecting rates of excretion.- 5.3.1 Factors affecting rates of excretion.- 5.4 Osmotic and ionic regulation.- 5.4.1 Water content.- 5.4.2 Buoyancy.- 6 Reproduction.- 6.1 Synopsis.- 6.1.1 Types of reproduction and trade-offs.- 6.1.2 Genetics.- 6.2 Gametogenesis.- 6.2.1 Gonad formation.- 6.2.2 Gamete production.- 6.2.3 Fertilization.- 6.3 Larval development.- 6.3.1 Embryogenesis and planulae.- 6.3.2 Brooding.- 6.3.3 Settlement including metamorphosis.- 6.3.4 Direct development.- 6.4 Polyp.- 6.4.1 Budding.- 6.4.2 Cysts including podocysts.- 6.4.3 Strobilation.- 6.5 Ephyra.- 7 Growth.- 7.1 Measurement of growth.- 7.1.1 Units.- 7.1.2 Methods.- 7.2 Organic composition of scyphozoa.- 7.3 Growth curves.- 7.3.1 Laboratory data.- 7.3.2 Field data.- 7.3.3 Life span.- 7.4 Starvation and regeneration.- 7.4.1 Degrowth and regrowth.- 7.4.2 Regeneration.- 7.5 Conversion efficiencies.- 7.6 Dietary requirements.- 7.6.1 Energy budget.- 7.6.2 Food supply.- 8 Physical ecology.- 8.1 Biomass.- 8.1.1 Measurement.- 8.1.2 Production.- 8.2 Mortality and adaptation to physical factors.- 8.2.1 Temperature.- 8.2.2 Salinity.- 8.2.3 Pollution.- 8.2.4 Oxygen.- 8.3 Depth.- 8.3.1 Vertical distribution.- 8.3.2 Diel migration.- 8.3.3 Changes with life cycle.- 8.4 Aggregation and horizontal migration.- 8.5 Zoogeography.- 9 Biological interactions.- 9.1 Predation.- 9.1.1 Natural predators: planktonic.- 9.1.2 Natural predators: benthic.- 9.1.3 Fisheries.- 9.1.4 Transparency and pigmentation.- 9.2 Parasites.- 9.2.1 Larval trematodes and cestodes.- 9.2.2 Hyperiid amphipods.- 9.3 Associations.- 9.3.1 Associations with fish.- 9.4 Bioluminescence.- 9.4.1 Anatomy of luminescent structures.- 9.4.2 Chemical basis of luminescence.- 9.4.3 Control of luminescence.- 9.4.4 Ecological significance.- 9.5 Trophic relationships.- 9.5.1 Impact on prey populations.- 9.5.2 Competition.- 9.5.3 Trophic levels.- Appendix: Classification of extant scyphozoa.- References.

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