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Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing


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Table of Contents

Preface 1: Introduction The aims of the book The climate for language testing Research and development: needs and problems Research and development: an agenda Overview of the book Notes 2: Measurement Introduction Definition of terms: measurement, test, evaluation Essential measurement qualities Properties of measurement scales Characteristics that limit measurement Steps in measurement Summary Notes Further reading Discussion questions 3: Uses of Language Tests Introduction Uses of language tests in educational programs Research uses of language tests Features for classifying different types of language test Summary Further reading Discussion questions 4: Communicative Language Ability Introduction Language proficiency and communicative competence A theoretical framework of communicative language ability Summary Notes Further reading Discussion questions 5: Test Methods Introduction A framework of test method facets Applications of this framework to language testing Summary Notes Further reading Discussion questions 6: Reliability Introduction Factors that affect language test scores Classical true score measurement theory Generalizability theory Standard error of measurement: Interpreting individual test scores within classical true score and generalizability theory Item response theory Reliability of criterion-referenced test scores Factors that affect reliability estimates Systematic measurement error Summary Notes Further reading Discussion questions 7: Validation Introduction Reliability and validity revisited Validity as a unitary concept The evidential basis of validity Test bias The consequential or ethical basis of validity Post mortem: face validity Summary Notes Further reading Discussion questions 8: Some Persistent Problems and Future Directions Introduction Authentic language tests Some future directions A general model for explaining performance on language tests Apologia et prolegomenon Summary Notes Further reading Discussion questions Bibliography Author index Subject index

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A clear and authoritative discussion of the basic concerns which underlie the development and use of language tests. By Lyle F Bachman. Part of the Oxford Applied Linguistics series.

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