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Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, Binder Ready Version
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Overview of Manufacturing 1 1.1 What Is Manufacturing? 2 1.2 Materials in Manufacturing 6 1.3 Manufacturing Processes 9 1.4 Production Systems 14 1.5 Manufacturing Economics 17 Part I Material Properties and Product Attributes 26 2 The Nature of Materials 26 2.1 Atomic Structure and the Elements 26 2.2 Bonding between Atoms and Molecules 29 2.3 Crystalline Structures 31 2.4 Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Structures 36 2.5 Engineering Materials 37 3 Mechanical Properties of Materials 40 3.1 Stress-Strain Relationships 40 3.2 Hardness 53 3.3 Effect of Temperature on Properties 57 3.4 Fluid Properties 59 3.5 Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymers 61 4 Physical Properties of Materials 66 4.1 Volumetric and Melting Properties 66 4.2 Thermal Properties 69 4.3 Mass Diffusion 70 4.4 Electrical Properties 72 4.5 Electrochemical Processes 74 5 Dimensions, Surfaces, and Their Measurement 77 5.1 Dimensions, Tolerances, and Related Attributes 77 5.2 Conventional Measuring Instruments and Gages 78 5.3 Surfaces 85 5.4 Measurement of Surfaces 89 5.5 Effect of Manufacturing Processes 91 Part II Engineering Materials 94 6 Metals 94 6.1 Alloys and Phase Diagrams 95 6.2 Ferrous Metals 99 6.3 Nonferrous Metals 115 6.4 Superalloys 123 7 Ceramics 126 7.1 Structure and Properties of Ceramics 127 7.2 Traditional Ceramics 129 7.3 New Ceramics 131 7.4 Glass 133 7.5 Some Important Elements Related to Ceramics 136 8 Polymers 140 8.1 Fundamentals of Polymer Science and Technology 141 8.2 Thermoplastic Polymers 150 8.3 Thermosetting Polymers 155 8.4 Elastomers 158 8.5 Polymer Recycling and Biodegradability 162 9 Composite Materials 166 9.1 Technology and Classification of Composite Materials 167 9.2 Metal Matrix Composites 174 9.3 Ceramic Matrix Composites 176 9.4 Polymer Matrix Composites 177 Part III Solidification Processes 181 10 Fundamentals of Metal Casting 181 10.1 Overview of Casting Technology 182 10.2 Heating and Pouring 184 10.3 Solidification and Cooling 188 11 Metal Casting Processes 198 11.1 Sand Casting 198 11.2 Other Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 202 11.3 Permanent-Mold Casting Processes 207 11.4 Foundry Practice 215 11.5 Casting Quality 219 11.6 Castability and Casting Economics 221 11.7 Product Design Considerations 225 12 Glassworking 230 12.1 Raw Materials Preparation and Melting 230 12.2 Shaping Processes in Glassworking 231 12.3 Heat Treatment and Finishing 236 12.4 Product Design Considerations 237 13 Shaping Processes for Plastics 239 13.1 Properties of Polymer Melts 240 13.2 Extrusion 242 13.3 Production of Sheet and Film 251 13.4 Fiber and Filament Production (Spinning) 254 13.5 Coating Processes 255 13.6 Injection Molding 256 13.7 Compression and Transfer Molding 266 13.8 Blow Molding and Rotational Molding 268 13.9 Thermoforming 273 13.10 Casting 277 13.11 Polymer Foam Processing and Forming 278 13.12 Product Design Considerations 279 14 Processing of Polymer Matrix Composites and Rubber 285 14.1 Overview of PMC Processing 285 14.2 Open Mold Processes 289 14.3 Closed Mold Processes 293 14.4 Other PMC Shaping Processes 295 14.5 Rubber Processing and Shaping 299 14.6 Manufacture of Tires and Other Rubber Products 304 Part IV Particulate Processing of Metals and Ceramics 309 15 Powder Metallurgy 309 15.1 Characterization of Engineering Powders 310 15.2 Production of Metallic Powders 314 15.3 Conventional Pressing and Sintering 316 15.4 Alternative Pressing and Sintering Techniques 322 15.5 Materials and Products for Powder Metallurgy 325 15.6 Design Considerations in Powder Metallurgy 326 16 Processing of Ceramics and Cermets 331 16.1 Processing of Traditional Ceramics 331 16.2 Processing of New Ceramics 339 16.3 Processing of Cermets 341 16.4 Product Design Considerations 443 Part V Metal Forming and Sheet Metalworking 345 17 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 345 17.1 Overview of Metal Forming 345 17.2 Material Behavior in Metal Forming 348 17.3 Temperature in Metal Forming 349 17.4 Strain Rate Sensitivity 351 17.5 Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming 353 18 Bulk Deformation Processes in Metal Working 356 18.1 Rolling 356 18.3 Forging 365 18.5 Extrusion 380 18.6 Wire and Bar Drawing 390 19 Sheet Metalworking 401 19.1 Cutting Operations 401 19.2 Bending Operations 408 19.3 Drawing 412 19.4 Dies and Presses for Sheet-Metal Processes 419 19.5 Other Sheet-Metal-Forming Operations 425 19.6 Sheet-Metal Operations Not Performed on Presses 428 19.7 Bending of Tube Stock 433 Part VI Material Removal Processes 439 20 Theory of Metal Machining 439 20.1 Overview of Machining Technology 441 20.2 Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining 444 20.3 Force Relationships and the Merchant Equation 448 20.4 Power and Energy Relationships in Machining 453 20.5 Cutting Temperature 455 21 Machining Operations and Machine Tools 459 21.1 Machining and Part Geometry 459 21.2 Turning and Related Operations 462 21.3 Drilling and Related Operations 470 21.4 Milling 475 21.5 Machining Centers and Turning Centers 482 21.6 Other Machining Operations 484 21.7 Machining Operations for Special Geometries 489 21.8 High-Speed Machining 495 22 Cutting-Tool Technology 500 22.1 Tool Life 500 22.2 Tool Materials 506 22.3 Tool Geometry 513 22.4 Cutting Fluids 523 23 Economic and Product Design Considerations in Machining 529 23.1 Machinability 529 23.2 Tolerances and Surface Finish 530 23.3 Machining Economics 535 23.4 Product Design Considerations in Machining 541 24 Grinding and Other Abrasive Processes 546 24.1 Grinding 546 24.2 Related Abrasive Processes 562 25 Nontraditional Machining and Thermal Cutting Processes 568 25.1 Mechanical Energy Processes 569 25.2 Electrochemical Machining Processes 572 25.3 Thermal Energy Processes 576 25.4 Chemical Machining 585 25.5 Application Considerations 590 Part VII Property Enhancing and Surface Processing Operations 595 26 Heat Treatment of Metals 595 26.1 Annealing 595 26.2 Martensite Formation in Steel 596 26.3 Precipitation Hardening 600 26.4 Surface Hardening 601 26.5 Heat Treatment Methods and Facilities 602 27 Surface Processing Operations 606 27.1 Industrial Cleaning Processes 606 27.2 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 610 27.3 Plating and Related Processes 611 27.4 Conversion Coating 615 27.5 Vapor Deposition Processes 616 27.6 Organic Coatings 622 27.7 Porcelain Enameling and Other Ceramic Coatings 624 27.8 Thermal and Mechanical Coating Processes 625 Part VIII Joining and Assembly Processes 628 28 Fundamentals of Welding 628 28.1 Overview of Welding Technology 629 28.2 The Weld Joint 631 28.3 Physics of Welding 634 28.4 Features of a Fusion-Welded Joint 637 29 Welding Processes 641 29.1 Arc Welding 641 29.2 Resistance Welding 650 29.3 Oxyfuel Gas Welding 657 29.4 Other Fusion-Welding Processes 661 29.5 Solid-State Welding 663 29.6 Weld Quality 669 29.7 Weldability and Welding Economics 673 29.8 Design Considerations in Welding 676 30 Brazing, Soldering, and Adhesive Bonding 681 30.1 Brazing 681 30.2 Soldering 686 30.3 Adhesive Bonding 690 31 Mechanical Assembly 697 31.1 Threaded Fasteners 697 31.2 Rivets and Eyelets 704 31.3 Assembly Methods Based on Interference Fits 705 31.4 Other Mechanical Fastening Methods 708 31.5 Molding Inserts and Integral Fasteners 709 31.6 Design for Assembly 710 Part IX Special Processing and Assembly Technologies 716 32 Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing 716 32.1 Fundamentals of Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing 717 32.2 Additive Manufacturing Processes 719 32.3 Cycle Time and Cost Analysis 726 32.4 Additive Manufacturing Applications 730 33 Processing of Integrated Circuits 734 33.1 Overview of IC Processing 735 33.2 Silicon Processing 738 33.3 Lithography 743 33.4 Layer Processes Used in IC Fabrication 747 33.5 Integrating the Fabrication Steps 753 33.6 IC Packaging 755 33.7 Yields in IC Processing 759 34 Electronics Assembly and Packaging 764 34.1 Electronics Packaging 764 34.2 Printed Circuit Boards 766 34.3 Printed Circuit Board Assembly 773 34.4 Electrical Connector Technology 780 35 Microfabrication Technologies 785 35.1 Microsystem Products 785 35.2 Microfabrication Processes 788 36 Nanofabrication Technologies 797 36.1 Nanotechnology Products and Applications 797 36.2 Introduction to Nanoscience 801 36.3 Nanofabrication Processes 805 Part X Manufacturing Systems 812 37 Automation Technologies for Manufacturing Systems 812 37.1 Automation Fundamentals 812 37.2 Hardware for Automation 815 37.3 Computer Numerical Control 819 37.4 Industrial Robotics 830 38 Integrated Manufacturing 38.1 Material Handling 838 38.2 Fundamentals of Production Lines 839 38.3 Manual Assembly Lines 841 38.4 Automated Production Lines 845 38.5 Cellular Manufacturing 849 38.6 Flexible Manufacturing Systems 853 38.7 Computer Integrated Manufacturing 857 Part XI Manufacturing Support Systems 861 39 Process Planning and Production Control 861 39.1 Process Planning 862 39.2 Other Manufacturing Engineering Functions 869 39.3 Production Planning and Control 872 39.4 Just-In-Time Delivery Systems 879 39.5 Lean Production 882 40 Quality Control and Inspection 887 40.1 Product Quality 887 40.2 Process Capability and Tolerances 888 40.3 Statistical Process Control 890 40.4 Quality Programs in Manufacturing 894 40.5 Inspection Principles 898 40.6 Modern Inspection Technologies 900 Appendix: Answers to Selected Problems 909 Index 913

About the Author

Mikell P. Groover is Professor of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering at Lehigh University, where he also serves as Director of the Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. He holds the following degrees all from Lehigh: B.A. in Arts and Science, B.S. in Mechanical Engineering, M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in Pennsylvania. His industrial experience includes full-time employment at Eastman Kodak Company as a Manufacturing Engineer. Since joining Lehigh, he has done consulting, research, and project work for a number of industrial companies including Ingersoll-Rand, Air Products & Chemicals, Bethlehem Steel, and Hershey Foods.

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