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Fundamentals of Plant Physiology


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Table of Contents

1. Plant and Cell Architecture Plant Life Processes: Unifying Principles Plant Classification and Life Cycles Overview of Plant Structure Plant Cell Types Plant Cell Organelles The Nucleus The Endomembrane System Independently Dividing Semiautonomous Organelles The Plant Cytoskeleton Cell Cycle Regulation 2. Water and Plant Cells Water in Plant Life The Structure and Properties of Water Diffusion and Osmosis Water Potential Water Potential of Plant Cells Cell Wall and Membrane Properties Plant Water Status 3. Water Balance of Plants Water in the Soil Water Absorption by Roots Water Transport through the Xylem Water Movement from the Leaf to the Atmosphere Coupling Leaf Transpiration and Photosynthesis: Light-dependent Stomatal Opening Water-use Efficiency Overview: The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum 4. Mineral Nutrition Essential Nutrients, Deficiencies, and Plant Disorders Treating Nutritional Deficiencies Soil, Roots, and Microbes 5. Assimilation of Inorganic Nutrients Nitrogen in the Environment Nitrate Assimilation Ammonium Assimilation Amino Acid Biosynthesis Biological Nitrogen Fixation Sulfur Assimilation Phosphate Assimilation Iron Assimilation The Energetics of Nutrient Assimilation 6. Solute Transport Passive and Active Transport Transport of Ions across Membrane Barriers Membrane Transport Processes Membrane Transport Proteins Ion Transport in Stomatal Opening Ion Transport in Roots 7. Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions Photosynthesis in Higher Plants General Concepts Key Experiments in Understanding Photosynthesis Organization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus Organization of Light-Absorbing Antenna Systems Mechanisms of Electron Transport Proton Transport and ATP Synthesis in the Chloroplast 8. Photosynthesis: The Carbon Reactions The Calvin-Benson Cycle Photorespiration: The C2 Oxidative Photosynthetic Carbon Cycle Inorganic Carbon-Concentrating Mechanisms Inorganic Carbon-Concentrating Mechanisms: The C4 Carbon Cycle Inorganic Carbon-Concentrating Mechanisms: Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Accumulation and Partitioning of Photosynthates-Starch and Sucrose 9. Photosynthesis: Physiological and Ecological Considerations Photosynthesis Is Influenced by Leaf Properties Effects of Light on Photosynthesis in the Intact Leaf Effects of Temperature on Photosynthesis in the Intact Leaf Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Photosynthesis in the Intact Leaf 10. Translocation in the Phloem Patterns of Translocation: Source to Sink Pathways of Translocation Materials Translocated in the Phloem Rates of Movement The Pressure-Flow Model, a Passive Mechanism for Phloem Transport Phloem Loading Phloem Unloading and Sink-to-Source Transition Photosynthate Distribution: Allocation and Partitioning Transport of Signaling Molecules 11. Respiration and Lipid Metabolism Overview of Plant Respiration Glycolysis The Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Mitochondrial Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis Respiration in Intact Plants and Tissues Lipid Metabolism 12. Signals and Signal Transduction Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Signaling Signal Perception and Amplification Hormones and Plant Development Phytohormone Metabolism and Homeostasis Signal Transmission and Cell-Cell Communication Hormonal Signaling Pathways 13. Signals from Sunlight Plant Photoreceptors Phytochromes Phytochrome Responses Blue-Light Responses and Photoreceptors Cryptochromes Phototropins The Coaction of Phytochrome, Cryptochrome, and Phototropins Responses to Ultraviolet Radiation 14. Embryogenesis Overview of Embryogenesis Comparative Embryology of Eudicots and Monocots Formation and Maintenance of Apical Meristems 15. Seed Dormancy, Germination, and Seedling Establishment Seed Structure Seed Dormancy Release from Dormancy Seed Germination Mobilization of Stored Reserves Seedling Establishment Cell Expansion: Mechanisms and Hormonal Controls Tropisms: Growth in Response to Directional Stimuli 16. Vegetative Growth and Senescence The Shoot Apical Meristem Leaf Development Differentiation of Epidermal Cell Types Venation Patterns in Leaves Shoot Branching and Architecture Shade Avoidance Root System Architecture Plant Senescence Leaf Abscission Whole Plant Senescence 17. Flowering and Fruit Development Floral Evocation: Integrating Environmental Cues The Shoot Apex and Phase Changes Photoperiodism: Monitoring Day Length Vernalization: Promoting Flowering with Cold Long-distance Signaling Is Involved in Flowering Floral Meristems and Floral Organ Development Pollen Development Female Gametophyte Development in the Ovule Pollination and Fertilization in Flowering Plants Fruit Development and Ripening 18. Biotic Interactions Beneficial Interactions between Plants and Microorganisms Harmful Interactions of Pathogens and Herbivores with Plants Inducible Defense Responses to Insect Herbivores Plant Defenses against Pathogens Plant Defenses against Other Organisms 19. Abiotic Stress Defining Plant Stress Acclimation versus Adaptation Environmental stressors Stress-Sensing Mechanisms in Plants Physiological Mechanisms That Protect Plants against Abiotic Stress

About the Author

Lincoln Taiz, Professor Emeritus of MCD Biology, University of California - Santa Cruz Eduardo Zeiger, Professor Emeritus, University of California - Los Angeles Ian Max Moller, Professor Emeritus, Aarhus University, Denmark Angus Murphy, Professor and Chair, University of Maryland


"Visually, with the single-column format and some excellent new figures, Fundamentals of Plant Physiology is very appealing. The running glossary may be my favourite feature and I know my students will find this very helpful. Additional introductory information is included in the chapters that will help get my students on the same page before we dive into brand new material. Chapters that I had generally either quickly glossed over or skipped altogether have been removed, making this streamlined version a better representation of the material I consider important for my students to learn in my course. I will feel very comfortable using this textbook in my course in the future." --Barb Vanderbeld, Queen's University

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