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Geopositioning and Mobility

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This book presents a general overview of the applications and use of geopositioning and GNSS for assisting the supervision and management of mobile terrestrial professions, information, traffic regulation, multimodal information, pedestrian mobility and indoor geopositioning, etc. It especially focuses on the field of mobility and terrestrial transport, the automotive industry and tourism (on foot, by bicycle or motorcycle, by car, by professional vehicles or by public transport, etc.). This book explores the many possibilities, developmental and organizational factors, as well as new paradigms, which will contribute to an essential part of GNSS s civil economy, especially to Galileo in the mid-term and to Egnos in the short-term. Several of GNSS s integration structuring aspects in sustainable terrestrial mobilities will be analyzed; for example in terms of system architecture, data safety or legal constraints. Numerous diverse points of view will be presented regarding subjects such as dynamic cartography and new computing architectures of: mobility systems, interconnection, service quality, regulation or supervision functions of individual freedoms. Contents Foreword, Matthias Ruete. 1. The Geopositioning Concept, Yves Alexandre. 2. Functions and Performance of the Egnos System, Jerome Legenne and Daniel Brocard. 3. Information, Modeling and Traffic Reconstruction, Arnaud De La Fortelle, Jean-Marc Lasgouttes and Fabien Moutarde. 4. Geopositioning and Legal Issues, Thierry Piette-Coudol. 5. Location-based Services: Platforms and Applications, Wafaa Ait-Cheik-Bihi, Ahmed Nait-Sidi-Moh, Mohamed Bakhouya, Jaafer Gaber and Maxime Wack. 6. Geofencing, Fabrice Reclus. 7. Pedestrian Navigation for the Benefit of Mobility, Pierre-Yves Gillieron, Veronique Chazal, Michael Flamm, Dominique Von Der Muhll and Monique Ruzicka-Rossier. 8. The Application of Satellite Positioning Systems in Travel Analysis,Patrick Gendre, Alexis Bacelar and Philippe Marchal. About the Authors Ahmed Nait-Sidi-Moh is Associate Professor of Industrial Engineering and Computer Engineering at the University of Picardie Jules Verne, St Quentin, France. His research interests include modeling, analysis of discrete event systems, performance evaluation and optimization, routing policies, scheduling and interoperability for service composition. Mohamed Bakhouya is a senior research scientist at Aalto University, Finland. His research interests include various aspects on the design, validation, implementation, performance evaluation and analysis of distributed systems, architectures, protocols and services. Jaafar Gaber is Associate Professor of Computational Sciences and Computer Engineering at the University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, France. His research interests include ubiquitous and pervasive computing, distributed systems, geopositioning and mobility, security and experimental performance evaluations. Maxime Wack is Associate Professor of Computational Sciences and Computer Engineering at the University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, France. He heads the Geopositioning, Embedded Systems and Mobility (GSEM) team. His research interests include intelligent transportation systems, security, digital signature and certification, location-based services and distributed systems.
Product Details

Table of Contents

Foreword xi Introduction xvii Ahmed NAIT-SIDI-MOH, Mohamed BAKHOUYA, Jaafar GABER and Maxime WACK Chapter 1. The Geopositioning Concept 1 Yves ALEXANDRE 1.1. A revolution is announced 1 1.2. The basis of powerful technological systems 2 1.2.1. US creation of a GPS economic industry 2 1.2.2. The European momentum introduced with Galileo which can rely on Egnos from now on 3 1.2.3. An open dynamic beyond the space industry sector 5 1.3. The fundamentals of geopositioning development 6 1.3.1. The universalism decentralizing of the Internet 6 1.3.2. The trend toward service of the electronic communication economy 7 1.3.3. The dynamic and lessons of the European GSM success story 9 1.4. Prospective visions of large geopositioning markets in transport and land transport 11 1.4.1. Multiple factors for geopositioning growth 11 1.4.2. Toll systems 12 1.4.3. Transport control and surveillance 15 1.4.4. The production of information 17 1.4.5. Intelligence systems in vehicles 19 1.4.6. Individual mobility (tourism and recreation) 21 1.5. The challenge for the future of the European GNSS incubation services 22 1.5.1. The need for downstream marketing services, applications and uses 22 1.5.2. The obligation of system strategies 23 1.5.3. The requirement to include GNSS in the new intelligent digital architectures 25 1.6. Bibliography 28 Chapter 2. Functions and Performance of the Egnos System 31 Jerome LEGENNE and Daniel BROCARD 2.1. Introduction 31 2.2. Operating principles of Egnos 35 2.3. Improving GPS performance with Egnos 37 2.4. The behavior of Egnos faced with a GPS breakdown 42 2.5. Conclusion 43 2.6. Links 45 Chapter 3. Information, Modeling and Traffic Reconstruction 47 Arnaud DE LA FORTELLE, Jean-Marc LASGOUTTES and Fabien MOUTARDE 3.1. New technologies and development 48 3.2. Modeling and algorithms 52 3.3. Analysis and overall traffic prediction 59 3.4. Realizations and experiments 63 3.5. Perspectives 69 3.6. Bibliography 71 Chapter 4. Geopositioning and Legal Issues 75 Thierry PIETTE-COUDOL 4.1. General legal framework of geopositioning 76 4.1.1. Legal texts 76 4.1.2. Relevant legal concepts 77 4.1.3. Technical concepts and the law 81 4.2. Operating a geopositioning service 82 4.2.1. Due diligence prerequisites 83 4.2.2. Establishment of a general framework for security 86 4.2.3. Determining the aim of the service 88 4.2.4. Administrative declaration 89 4.2.5. The principle of consent in geopositioning 91 4.2.6. Records management issues 95 4.3. Authentication and anonymity 97 4.3.1. Identity, name and anonymity 97 4.3.2. Identity and digital certificates 99 4.4. Bibliography 102 Chapter 5. Location-based Services: Platforms and Applications 103 Wafaa AIT-CHEIK-BIHI, Ahmed NAIT-SIDI-MOH, Mohamed BAKHOUYA, Jaafer GABER and Maxime WACK 5.1. Introduction 103 5.2. Technologies for LBS-based systems 104 5.2.1. Positioning systems and techniques 105 5.2.2. Communication techniques 106 5.2.3. Cartography and geographical information systems 106 5.2.4. Business process 108 5.3. Fields of application of LBS 111 5.3.1. Control and monitoring of vehicles 113 5.3.2. Real-time monitoring of snowplows 116 5.3.3. Application to antilock braking systems 118 5.3.4. TransportML for the collaboration and interaction of services 119 5.3.5. eCall: automatic emergency call system 120 5.3.6. Other LBS-based platforms 122 5.4. Conclusions 122 5.5. Bibliography 123 Chapter 6. Geofencing 127 Fabrice RECLUS 6.1. General presentation 127 6.1.1. Introduction 127 6.1.2. Terminology 128 6.2. Fields of application 131 6.2.1. Merchandise transportation 131 6.2.2. Fleet management 131 6.2.3. Security and defense applications 132 6.2.4. Surveillance of individuals 133 6.3. Tracking and geofencing system 133 6.3.1. Composition of system 133 6.3.2. Functionalities 134 6.4. Geofences 135 6.4.1. Classification 135 6.4.2. Calculation algorithms 137 6.5. Errors and false alarms 139 6.5.1. Parasite phenomena 139 6.5.2. Buffer zones 140 6.5.3. Configuration of a buffer zone 141 6.5.4. Examples of detection methods using geofencing 142 6.5.5. Geographical zones 143 6.5.6. The circle method 144 6.5.7. The rectangle method 144 6.5.8. The polygon method 145 6.5.9. Zones with scheduled time slots 145 6.5.10. Routes 146 6.5.11. Dynamic zones 147 6.6. Possible applications 149 6.6.1. Interest and reduced gains 149 6.7. Applications to road transport 150 6.7.1. Restrictions of access to zones 150 6.7.2. Freeway corridors 151 6.7.3. Monitoring parking in service areas 151 6.7.4. User services 152 6.7.5. Summary table of geofencing applications 152 6.8. Conclusion 153 6.9. Bibliography 154 Chapter 7. Pedestrian Navigation for the Benefit of Mobility 155 Pierre-Yves GILLIERON, Veronique CHAZAL, Michael FLAMM, Dominique VON DER MUHLL and Monique RUZICKA-ROSSIER 7.1. Context 155 7.2. Preamble Pedestrians 156 7.2.1. Pedestrian travel: an ambiguous status 156 7.2.2. Understanding individuals pedestrian thought processes 158 7.3. Current state of pedestrian navigation technologies 162 7.3.1. Location and orientation technologies 162 7.4. Modeling of traffic areas accessible to pedestrians 176 7.4.1. Cartography for pedestrians 176 7.4.2. Navigation maps: from automobile to pedestrian 178 7.4.3. Navigation solutions for built environments 179 7.4.4. The importance of reference point systems 180 7.5. User needs and contexts of use 182 7.5.1. List of potential fields of application 182 7.5.2. Applications to help people with disabilities 183 7.5.3. Applications for leisure activities 188 7.5.4. Applications for navigation in complex infrastructures 190 7.5.5. Applications to serve professionals 194 7.6. Summary and conclusion 196 7.7. Bibliography 198 Chapter 8. The Application of Satellite Positioning Systems in Travel Analysis 203 Patrick GENDRE, Alexis BACELAR and Philippe MARCHAL 8.1. Introduction 203 8.2. Use of geopositioning for travel surveys 204 8.2.1. Context 204 8.2.2. Technical principles 204 8.2.3. Existing supply 204 8.2.4. 2007 National Transport Survey (ENTD) 205 8.2.5. Hardware 207 8.2.6. Software 207 8.2.7. Other recent projects 209 8.2.8. Other similar uses of GNSS 209 8.3. Travel time via GPS: the Cap Vista application 210 8.3.1. Context 210 8.3.2. Creation of software 211 8.4. Presentation of the Cap Vista application 212 8.4.1. GPS, DB and GIS 212 8.4.2. Possible uses 216 8.4.3. Initial assessment and paths of improvement 217 8.5. Conclusions and perspectives 218 8.6. Bibliography 219 Conclusion 223 Ahmed NAIT-SIDI-MOH, Mohamed BAKHOUYA, Jaafar GABER and Maxime WACK Glossary 227 List of Authors 235 Index 237

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