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God's War
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"God's War" offers a sweeping new vision of one of history's most astounding events: the Crusades. From 1096 to 1500, European Christians fought to recreate the Middle East, Muslim Spain, and the pagan Baltic in the image of their God. The Crusades are perhaps both the most familiar and most misunderstood phenomena of the medieval world, and here Christopher Tyerman seeks to recreate, from the ground up, the centuries of violence committed as an act of religious devotion. The result is a stunning reinterpretation of the Crusades, revealed as both bloody political acts and a manifestation of a growing Christian communal identity. Tyerman uncovers a system of belief bound by aggression, paranoia, and wishful thinking, and a culture founded on war as an expression of worship, social discipline, and Christian charity. This astonishing historical narrative is imbued with figures that have become legends--Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus. But Tyerman also delves beyond these leaders to examine the thousands and thousands of Christian men--from Knights Templars to mercenaries to peasants--who, in the name of their Savior, abandoned their homes to conquer distant and alien lands, as well as the countless people who defended their soil and eventually turned these invaders back. With bold analysis, Tyerman explicates the contradictory mix of genuine piety, military ferocity, and plain greed that motivated generations of Crusaders. He also offers unique insight into the maturation of a militant Christianity that defined Europe's identity and that has forever influenced the cyclical antagonisms between the Christian and Muslim worlds. Drawing on all of the most recent scholarship, and told with great verve and authority, "God's War" is the definitive account of a fascinating and horrifying story that continues to haunt our contemporary world.
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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations List of Maps Acknowledgements Preface Introduction: Europe and the Mediterranean The First Crusade 1. The Origins of Christian Holy War 2. The Summons to Jerusalem 3. The March to Constantinople 4. The Road to the Holy Sepulchre Frankish Outremer 5. The Foundation of Christian Outremer 6. The Latin States 7. East is East and East is West: Outremer in the Twelfth Century The Second Crusade 8. A New Path to Salvation? Western Christendom and Holy War 1100-1145 9. God's Bargain: Summoning the Second Crusade 10. 'The Spirit of the Pilgrim God': Fighting the Second Crusade The Third Crusade 11. 'A Great Cause for Mourning': The Revival of Crusading and the Third Crusade 12. The Call of the Cross 13. To the Siege of Acre 14. The Palestine War 1191-2 The Fourth Crusade 15. 'Ehud's Sharpened Sword' 16. The Fourth Crusade: Preparations 17. The Fourth Crusade: Diversion The Expansion of Crusading 18. The Albigensian Crusades 1209-29 19. The Fifth Crusade 1213-21 20. Frontier Crusades 1: Conquest in Spain 21. Frontier Crusades 2: the Baltic and the North The Defence of Outremer 22. Survival and Decline: the Frankish Holy Land in the Thirteenth Century 23. The Defence of the Holy Land 1221-44 24. Louis IX and the Fall of Mainland Outremer 1244-91 The Later Crusades 25. The Eastern Crusades in the Later Middle Ages 26. The Crusade and Christian Society in the Later Middle Ages Conclusion Notes Select Further Reading Select List of Rulers Index

Promotional Information

Christopher Tyerman has crafted a superb book whose majestic architecture compares with Runciman's classic study of the Crusades...He is an entertaining as well as reliable guide to the bizarre centuries-long episode in which Western Christianity willfully ignored its Master's principles of love and forgiveness. -- Diarmaid MacCulloch, author of Thomas Cranmer: a Life This is a magisterial work. In God's War, the Crusades are not just emblematic episodes in a troubled history of Europe's encounter with Islam. Tyerman shows that they are, with all their contradictions--tragedy and tomfoolery, idealism and cynicism, piety and savagery--fundamentally and inescapably human. -- Paul M. Cobb, Associate Professor of Islamic History, Fellow of the Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame Tyerman's wonderful book is contemporary medieval history-writing at the top of its game. It is also the finest history of the Crusades that anyone has ever written, fully informed by its predecessors and by the excellent scholarship of the past half century. Trenchantly written on the grand scale and full of vivid detail, clear argument, and sharp judgment, God's War shows how the entire apparatus of crusade became tightly woven into European institutional and social life and consciousness, offering a highly original perspective on all of early European history and on European relations with non-Europeans. It shows no patience with ignorant mythologizing, modern condescension, or cultural instrumentalism. In short, it constitutes a crusade history for the twenty-first century--and just in time. -- Edward M. Peters, Henry Charles Lea Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania At a time when interest in the Middle East and the Crusades has reached a new height, Christopher Tyerman has made a significant contribution to the ever-growing shelves of books devoted to this subject. Tyerman's well-written book focuses heavily on the development of ideas about holy war from antiquity onward and on the crusade to the East from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. It is based on a careful reading of both primary and secondary sources and will prove an important resource for a broad audience of scholars, students, and general readers. The comparison with Runciman's history leaps out from the pages of this large volume and the temptation to address it will no doubt seduce others, but this volume is Tyerman through and through. -- James M. Powell, Professor Emeritus of Medieval History, Syracuse University

About the Author

Christopher Tyerman is Lecturer in Medieval History at Hertford College and New College, University of Oxford.

Reviews

Tyerman (medieval history, Univ. of Oxford; England and the Crusades and Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades) conveys in his title the importance that he places on the religious component of the Crusades. He traces the growth, in western Christendom, of the concept of holy war and how it emerged from earlier ideas of the just war. The Crusades can be seen, he points out, as a manifestation of papal power. The pope's ability to rally the military might of Christendom and to launch it in an attempt to regain the Holy Land highlighted the power that the western Church had over people's lives during the early Middle Ages. Challenging traditional conceptions of the Crusades, e.g., the failure to retain Jerusalem, Tyerman believes that it was the weakening of papal power and the rise of secular governments in Europe that finally doomed the crusading impulse. This is a marvelously conceived, written, and supported book, highly recommended for public and academic libraries. Robert J. Andrews, Duluth P.L., MN Copyright 2006 Reed Business Information.

This is likely to replace Steven Runciman's 50-year-old History of the Crusades as the standard work. Tyerman (England and the Crusades), lecturer in medieval history at Oxford University, demolishes our simplistic misconceptions about that series of ferocious campaigns in the Middle East, Muslim Spain and the pagan Baltic between 1096 and 1500. Abjuring sentimentality and avoiding clich?s about a rapacious West and an innocent East, Tyerman focuses on the crusades' very human paradoxes: "the inspirational idealism; utopianism armed with myopia; the elaborate, sincere intolerance; the diversity and complexity of motive and performance." The reader marvels at the crusaders' inextinguishable devotion to Christ even while shuddering at their delight in massacring those who did not share that devotion. In the end, Tyerman says, what killed crusading was neither a lack of soldierly enthusiasm nor its failure to retain control of Jerusalem, but the loss of Church control over civil societies at home and secular authorities who felt that religion was not sufficient cause for war and that diplomacy was a more rational method of deciding international relations. God's War is that very rare thing: a readable and vivid history written with the support of a formidable scholarly background, and it deserves to reach a wide audience. 16 color illus. (Sept.) Copyright 2006 Reed Business Information.

This is likely to replace Steven Runciman's 50-year-old History of the Crusades as the standard work. Tyerman, lecturer in medieval history at Oxford University, demolishes our simplistic misconceptions about that series of ferocious campaigns in the Middle East, Muslim Spain and the pagan Baltic between 1096 and 1500...God's War is that very rare thing: a readable and vivid history written with the support of a formidable scholarly background, and it deserves to reach a wide audience. Publishers Weekly (starred review 20060724 Challenging traditional conceptions of the Crusades, e.g., the failure to retain Jerusalem, Tyerman believes that it was the weakening of papal power and the rise of secular governments in Europe that finally doomed the crusading impulse. This is a marvelously conceived, written, and supported book. -- Robert J. Andrews Library Journal 20060915 Christopher Tyerman, who teaches medieval history in Oxford, offers in his new and massive study of the Crusades as a whole a welcome synthesis for the general reader...Full of fascinating detail...God's War is a first-rate, scholarly, up-to-date, and highly readable survey of the entire crusading movement...In the gullible age of The Da Vinci Code, Tyerman offers a sane, informed, and gripping account of one of the most characteristic and most extraordinary manifestations of the Christian Middle Ages. -- Eamon Duffy New York Review of Books 20061019 Tyerman, an Oxford scholar, combines vigorous argument and nuanced analysis in this deeply learned chronicle of the Crusades...It's the best single-volume treatment of this still-controversial and fraught subject. -- Benjamin Healy and Benjamin Schwarz The Atlantic 20061101 A magisterial work...it is a shoo-in to become this generation's definitive history of the original Crusades, a series of military expeditions that temporarily returned the Holy Land to Christian rule in the Middle Ages. Hefty, encyclopedic and a darn good read, Tyerman's book has the rarest of virtues among myriad treatments of the subject: It doesn't bend history to preconceptions. -- Ron Grossman Chicago Tribune 20061029 Anyone who likes knights, castles and battles as much as I do will enjoy Christopher Tyerman's masterpiece God's War, a history of the Crusades written with great breadth, clarity and human sympathy: one of the achievements of the year. -- Dominic Sandbrook Daily Telegraph 20061209 With rekindled controversy about Western invasions of the Middle East, the Crusades of the late Middle Ages take on unanticipated relevance. It is thus a real boon for this strikingly effective book to appear at this time. The key to Tyerman's signal success is his ability to explain both the vicious brutality and the serious Christian altruism that were so intimately intertwined in the crusading experience and that have left such a tangled legacy for Muslim-Christian relations to this day. -- Mark A. Noll Christian Century 20061017 God's War is a long but highly readable account of this extensive back-and-forth struggle. It is an impressive achievement, a work that manages to tie together an extraordinary number of threads across nearly half a millennium of European history. Although it can be taken as a response to Pope Benedict XVI's comments at Regensburg, it is more properly read as an extended rejoinder to Steven Runciman's classic three-volume History of the Crusades, published in the early 1950s, a long and colorful account that is nonetheless studded with judgments that now seem prejudiced and amateurish. Tyerman, by contrast, is never amateurish. His knowledge of the period is encyclopedic, and his judgments are sharp, astute, and fair--which is to say unsparing--to both camps. He neither vilifies Islam nor engages in the easy Euro-bashing that is the obverse of Islamophobia. With so many people succumbing to subjectivism these days, it is bracing to come across a historian who remains resolutely above the fray, who insists on viewing the conflict as a whole and who always has the broader context in mind. -- Daniel Lazare The Nation 20061211 Christopher Tyerman's God's War is comprehensive, fascinating, and timely. It deflates comparisons of current U.S. strategies with the Crusades. True, the participation of religious in battle (like Odo on the Bayeux Tapestry) is noteworthy, but so is Tyerman's questioning of the cliche 'Age of Faith.' Indeed, while these books make the Middle Ages seem real, they also make it seem different, and our capacity to entertain the differences is morally crucial. -- Tom D'Evelyn Providence Journal Christopher Tyerman's God's War: A New History of the Crusades is a doorstop of a book, a mammoth effort to retell, based on modern scholarship, the story of how Western Christendom made war to wrest the Holy Lands from Muslim hands. As we all know, this isn't considered ancient history in the Middle East. -- Fritz Lanham Houston Chronicle This thick book compares favorably to Sir Steven Runciman's three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951-54), but where Runciman, writing a half century ago, saw the Crusades as Christianity's moral failure, Tyerman sees a violent era: neither Christians nor Moslems were peaceful, and both faced dangerous enemies...In addition to persuasive revisionist interpretations of individual crusades, Tyerman treats the broader scope of crusading, including Spain, the Balkans, and the Baltic. Most importantly for historians, the author sees nothing in the Crusades than can inform modem politics. -- W. L. Urban Choice 20070301 God's War is the new standard in the field...Adjectives for [it] almost fail. "Comprehensive," "monumental," and "epic" come to mind, and they are appropriate but scarcely adequate. In brief, this is a work by a master historian. -- Alfred J. Andrea CT Review 20070701 Christopher Tyerman...has written a tome that...draws on the most recent scholarship and offers fresh insights, demolishing myths galore. -- A. G. Noorani Frontline 20070504

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