Part I: WRITING. 1. Writing and Reading Rhetorically. Understanding the Rhetorical Situation. Applying Rhetorical Knowledge. Academic Writing. Genres and Formats of Academic Writing. 2. Planning and Drafting Essays. Stages of the Writing Process. Focusing a Topic into a Clearly Stated Thesis. Creating an Outline. 3. Developing Paragraphs. Stating the Main Idea. Developing the Main Point. Employing Methods for Developing Paragraphs. Making Paragraphs Coherent. 4. Revising and Editing Essays. Revising for Unity and Coherence. Editing and Proofreading. Sample Final Draft. 5. Critical Reading and Analysis. Critical Reading. Critical Analysis. 6. Writing Arguments. Determining the Purpose of Your Argument. Considering Differing Viewpoints. Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion. Taking a Position or Making a Claim. Providing Evidence for an Effective Argument. Using the Rhetorical Appeals to Ground Your Argument. Arranging an Effective Argument. Sample Argument. 7. Designing Documents. Elements of Design. Using Graphics. Using Pictures. Using Maps. Using Cartoons. Part II: RESEARCH. 8. Planning Research. Research as Inquiry. Finding Your Own Research Question. Testing Your Research Question. Creating a Research Plan. 9. Finding Sources in Print, Online, and in the Field. Deciding Which Sources to Use. Searching Electronically for Print and Online Sources. Keeping Track of Your Sources. Doing Field Research. 10. Evaluating Print and Online Sources. Credibility of Authors. Credibility of Publishers. Online Sources. Reading Closely and Critically. 11. Using Sources Critically and Responsibly. Taking and Organizing Notes. Creating a Working Annotated Bibliography. Acknowledging Your Sources. Using Direct Quotations. Paraphrasing Another Person's Ideas. Summarizing an Idea. Analyzing and Responding to Sources. Synthesizing Sources. Critical Thinking. 12. Avoiding Plagiarism. Knowing Which Sources Require Acknowledgment. Citing Quotations and Ideas from Sources. Part III: DOCUMENTATION. 13. MLA Documentation. MLA-Style In-Text Citations. MLA List of Works Cited. Sample MLA-Style Paper. 14. APA Documentation. APA-Style In-Text Citations. APA-Style Reference List. Sample APA-Style Paper. 15. CMS Documentation. CMS Note and Bibliographic Forms. Sample CMS-Style Paper. 16. CSE Documentation. CSE Citation-Sequence, Name-Year, and Citation-Name Systems. Sample CSE-Style Paper. Part IV: GRAMMAR. 17. Sentence Essentials. Parts of Speech. Subjects and Predicates. Complements. Phrases. Clauses. 18. Sentence Fragments. Recognizing Sentence Fragments. Phrases as Sentence Fragments. Dependent Clauses as Sentence Fragments. 19. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences. Locating Comma Splices and Fused Sentences. Revising Comma Splices and Fused Sentences. Divided Quotations. 20. Verbs. Verb Forms. Verb Tenses. Verb Tense Consistency. Voice. Mood. Subject-Verb Agreement. 21. Pronouns. Recognizing Pronouns. Pronoun Case. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement. Clear Pronoun Reference. Pronoun Consistency. Use of First-Person and Second-Person Pronouns. 22. Modifiers. Recognizing Modifiers. Comparatives and Superlatives. Double Negatives. Placement of Modifiers. Dangling Modifiers. Part V: EFFECTIVE SENTENCES. 23. Sentence Unity. Choosing and Arranging Details. Revising Mixed Metaphors. Revising Mixed Constructions. Relating Sentence Parts. Including Necessary Words. Completing Comparisons. Completing Intensifiers. 24. Subordination and Coordination. Using Subordination Effectively. Using Coordination Effectively. Avoiding Faulty or Excessive Subordination and Coordination. 25. Parallelism. Recognizing Parallel Elements. Repeating Words and Grammatical Forms. Linking Two or More Sentences. Using Correlative Conjunctions. 26. Emphasis. Placing Words for Emphasis. Using Cumulative and Periodic Sentences. Ordering Ideas from Least to Most Important. Repeating Important Words. Inverting Word Order. Using an Occasional Short Sentence. 27. Variety. Revising Sentence Length and Form. Varying Sentence Openings. Using Questions, Exclamations, and Commands. Part VI: EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE. 28. Good Usage. Clear Style. Appropriate Word Choice. Inclusive Language. 29. Precise Word Choice. Accurate and Precise Word Choice. Cliches and Euphemisms. Idioms and Collocations. Clear Definitions. 30. Conciseness. Eliminating Wordiness and Other Redundancies. Using Elliptical Constructions. Part VII: PUNCTUATION. 31. The Comma. Before a Coordinating Conjunction Linking Independent Clauses. After an Introductory Word or Word Group. Separating Elements in a Series. With Nonessential Elements. With Geographical Names and Items in Dates and Addresses. With Direct Quotations. Unnecessary or Misplaced Commas. 32. The Semicolon and the Colon. The Semicolon. The Colon. 33. The Apostrophe. Indicating Ownership and Other Relationships. Marking Omissions of Letters or Numbers. Forming Certain Plurals. 34. Quotation Marks. Direct Quotations. Titles of Short Works. With Other Punctuation Marks. 35. The Period and Other Punctuation Marks. The Period. The Question Mark. The Exclamation Point. The Dash. Parentheses. Square Brackets. Ellipsis Points. The Slash. Part VIII: MECHANICS. 36. Spelling and the Hyphen. Spelling and Pronunciation. Words That Sound Alike. Prefixes and Suffixes. Confusion of ei" and "ie". Hyphens. 37. Capitals. Proper Names. Titles and Subtitles. Beginning a Sentence. Computer Keys, Menu Items, and Icon Names. 38. Italics. Titles of Works Published or Produced Separately. Other Uses of Italics. Words Not Italicized. 39. Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Numbers. Abbreviations with Names. Addresses in Correspondence. Acceptable Abbreviations in Academic and Professional Writing. Acronyms. General Uses of Numbers. Special Uses of Numbers."
Professor of English at Central Washington University, Loretta Gray has three degrees related to her interest in composition and applied linguistics: Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Second Language (School for International Training), Master of Arts in Spanish (Middlebury College), and Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Linguistics (Boston University). She has experience teaching English to non-native speakers in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. In addition, she taught Spanish at Clemson University and applied linguistics at the School for International Training. Dr. Gray has been teaching composition and applied linguistics courses at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington, since 1992. She also is co-author of the textbook RHETORICAL GRAMMAR. Dr. Cheryl Glenn, Distinguished Professor of English at Penn State University, is an international leader in the field of rhetoric and writing. She has served as chair of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) and has been named Rhetorician of the Year and the 2019 CCCC Exemplar. She has received numerous awards for her works on SILENCE AND LISTENING AS RHETORICAL ARTS and, most recently, RHETORICAL FEMINISM AND THIS THING CALLED HOPE. Across the arc of her career, she remains most proud of her teaching awards. Today, Dr. Glenn continues to speak and write extensively about the importance of everyone having a voice, of being listened to and, of course, of the power of the written word.