Preface. Introduction to Grazing: The Role of Grazing Management. Kinds of Grazing Lands. Grazing Management Applications. Grazing as an Ecosystem Component. The Importance of Grazing. Grazing and Land Use Planning. Grazing Herbivore Nutrition: Ruminants vs. Cecal Herbivores. Nutrient Requirements. Nutrient Levels in Forages and Ingesta. Anti-quality Agents in Plants. Animal Nutritional Balance: Forage-Animal Plans. Monitoring Grazing Animal Nutrition. Supplementation Practices. Grazing Seasons and Seasonal Balance: The Forage Growth Cycle. Determinants of the Grazing Season. Seasonal Tolerance of Defoliation. Balancing Seasonal Supply and Demand. Complementary Grazing Programs. Grazing Effects on Plants and Soil: Grazing Effects in Perspective. Defoliation and Plant Morphology. Defoliation and Plant Physiology. Physical Effects on Plants. Grazing Effects on Soil. Grazing Activities/Behavior: Ingestive Behavior. Daily Activities: Time Spent. Daily Activities: Time of Day. Spatial Patterns in Grazing: Spatial Foraging Decisions. Memory, Past Experience, and Training. Determinants of Grazing Distribution. Forage Factors in Site Selection. Non-forage Vegetation Factors. Slope and Related Physical Factors. Distance from Water. Outside Disruption. Manipulating Grazing Distribution: The Tools of Distribution. Drinking Water Requirements. Locating Drinking Water. Fencing. Herding and Handling. Salting and Supplementation. Other Site Attractants. Special Problem: Riparian Zones. Plant Selection in Grazing: Selectivity. Palatability (Plant). Preference (Animal). Patch Grazing: Problem or Benefit. Kind and Mix of Grazing Animals: Choice of Animal Species. Kind of Animal. Mixed Species Grazing. Alternative Large Herbivores. Interspecific Sociality. Competition under Mixed Grazing. Grazing Animal Intake and Equivalence: Forage Dry Matter Intake. Animal Equivalence and the Animal Unit Month. Forage Allocation. Grazing Capacity Inventory: Relationships Among Stocking Variables. Utilization Guidelines. Setting Initial Stocking Rates. Dynamics of Grazing Capacity. Grazing Intensity: Overgrazing vs. Overstocking. Grazing Intensity Effects on Vegetation and Site. Grazing Intensity Effects on Animals and Economics. Managing Forage Production Fluctuations. Grazing Methods: Introduction to Special Grazing Techniques. Role of Special Grazing Techniques. Adapting Special Grazing Techniques. Continuous Grazing Methods. Seasonal Suitability Grazing Methods. Deferred/Rested Grazing Methods. High-Intensity Grazing Methods. Grazing Systems: Development of Grazing Systems. Rotation Grazing. Deferred Grazing Systems. Rest Grazing Systems. High-Intensity/Low Frequency (HILF) Grazing Systems. Short-Duration Grazing System. Grazing System Effects on Game Animals. Grazing as an Environmental Tool: Manipulative Benefits of Animal Grazing. Biological Plant Control by Grazing. Manipulating Animal Habitat by Grazing. Grazing to Aid Forage Plant Seeding. Grazing and Forest Regeneration. Appendix. Glossary. Literature Cited. Index.
* Animal nutrition and nutritional balance when fed on different sorts of grazing lands * Seasonal variation and limits placed on ecosystems by grazing * The effects of grazing on grazing lands * The various sorts of grazing behaviours * Selecting plants and managing grazing lands
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