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Green Communications and Networking

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Table of Contents

Power-Efficient Last Mile Access Using Fiber-Connected Massively Distributed Antenna System Evolution of Cellular Networks and Power Efficiency Considerations Power Consumption Traffic Density Equipment Cost The Goals and Organization of This Chapter BWA-FMDA Architecture A Brief Background on RoF Solutions Antenna Elements Optical Communication Medium Central Processing Entity Power Consumption and Simulation Models Power Consumption Model Signaling Overhead Simulation Model Numerical Results Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz) Energy Efficiency (bit/Joule) Tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency Conclusions Bibliography Wireless Networks Resources Trading for QoS Performance Guaranteed Green Communications Demanding-Based Communications Model Resources Trading in Wireless Networks Wireless Resource Trading The Tradeoff between Energy and Bandwidth/Delay The Tradeoff between Energy and the Number of Antennas The Tradeoff between Energy and Coding Schemes Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Cellular Networks Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Femtocell Networks System Model Model for Energy Consumption in Downlink Channels Spectrum Allocation for Green Radio Simulations Results and Performance Analyses Conclusions Bibliography Green Relay Techniques in Cellular Systems Introduction Spectrum and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Relay-assisted Systems System Model Spectrum Efficiency Analysis Energy Efficiency Analysis Insights and discussions H-ARQ Relaying and H2-ARQ Relaying H2-ARQ Relaying Strategy Performance Analysis Insights and Discussions Energy Efficient RNs in Cellular Networks Cellular System and Power Model Optimization of RN Deployment Outdoor-to-Indoor Relaying Bibliography Cross-layer Design and Optimization for Green Wireless Communications and Networking Energy Efficient Design at Different Layers Energy Efficient Hardware Platforms Energy Efficient OS Energy Efficient MAC Energy Efficient Networking Energy Efficient Application Cross-layer Optimization in Energy Static Networks Network Model Network Protocols Cross-layer Designs in Energy Dynamic Networks Hardware and Communication Sensing Bibliography Energy-Efficient Rate Adaptation in Long-Distance Wireless Mesh Networks Introduction Background: Long Distance Wireless Mesh Networks Inter-link interference model 2PMAC Protocol Overview: Rate Adaptation in Wireless Networks ERAA: Rate Adaptation Algorithm for Outdoor Long Distance 802.11 Links Network Model and Operations Design Overview The Probing Stage The Adapting Stage Path Loss Calculation and RSSI Prediction Energy Efficient Bit Rate Selection CNP-CUSUM to Handle External Interference Performance Evaluation CNP-CUSUM: Interference Intensity Change Detection Rate Adaptation Performance Concluding Remarks Bibliography Graph-Theoretic Algorithms for Energy Saving in IP Networks Elements of the Graph Theory Used in GES Shortest Path Tree Edge between Algebraic connectivity ESACON algorithm ESTOP algorithm EAR algorithm A practical example of GES application Performance behavior of the GES algorithms Path length increase Percentage of links that are switched off Power saving Impact in terms of traffic utilization Practical implementation of the GES algorithms Conclusions Bibliography Architectural Design of An Energy-Efficient Router Opportunities and Challenges Architecture of Green Reconfigurable Router Power Aware Routing through Green Traffic Engineering The General Problem Formulation A Practical Heuristic Rate Adaptive Processing inside Routers Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Adaptive Link Rate Interface A Multi-Frequency Scaling Prototype Power Efficient Architectures for Router Functions Routing Lookup Packet Classifier Packet Queuing Traffic Manager Summary Bibliography The Impact of Renewable Energy Sources in the CO2 Emissions of Converged Optical Network and Cloud Infrastructures Introduction Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure Optical Network Elements Energy consumption models for computing resources Energy aware VI planning VI Problem Formulation Numerical Results Conclusions Bibliography Low Power Dynamic Scheduling for Computing Systems Task Scheduling with Processing Rate Constraints Examples of Energy-Aware Processing Time Averages as Ratios of Frame Averages Relation to Frame Average Expectations An Example with One Task Class No constraints One Constraint The Linear Fractional Program for Task Scheduling Virtual Queues The Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio Bounding the Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio The Task Scheduling Algorithm Steps to minimize (9.24) Performance of the Task Scheduling Algorithm Simulation Optimization with General Attributes Mapping to the Task Scheduling Problem The General Algorithm Random Task Arrivals and Flow Control The Dynamic Algorithm for Random Task Arrivals Deterministic Queue Bounds and Constraint Violation Bounds Simulations and Adaptiveness of Random Task Scheduling Task Scheduling: Extensions and Further Reading Exercises for Section 9.2 Reacting to Randomly Observed Events Algorithm1 Algorithm2 Comparison of Algorithms 1 and 2 Efficient Computation and Transmission for a Wireless Smart Device Exercises for Section 9.3 Conclusions Bibliography Smart Grid Communication Network and Its Applications Introduction AMI and Its Applications Background The AMI Infrastructure The AMI Metering System AMI Communication Network The Meter Data Management System The Standardization of the AMI Infrastructure The Standardization of AMI Communication Protocols The Standardized AMI Information Model Advanced DMS Applications Distribution System State Estimation Advanced Outage Management Demand Response Dependency on the AMI System SCADA -The Utility Monitoring and Control Network and Its Applications Background Components of SCADA Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) Remote Terminal Units (RTU) Automation Controllers Communication Protocols in SCADA Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3) IEC 61850 Discussion Distribution Automation Fault Detection, Isolation, and Service Restoration Voltage and Var Control Conclusion Bibliography Demand and Response in Smart Grid Demand and Response Overview Significance of Demand Response Demand Response in Traditional Grid New Requirements in Smart Grid Representative DR Algorithms in Smart Grid Classifications Customer Profit Optimization Algorithms Operation Cost of Electric Utility Reduction Social Welfare Maximization Summarize the DR Methods and Future Directions Conclusion Bibliography Green Wireless Cellular Networks in the Smart Grid Environment Introduction Background GreenWireless Cellular Networks Energy-Efficient Solutions Key Trade-offs in the Network Smart Grid Demand-Side Management System Models Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Communication Service Blocking Probability Model in the Cellular Network Electricity Consumption Model for Base Stations Problem Formulation Cellular Network Level Game Smart Grid Level Game Analysis of the Proposed Two-Level Game Analysis of the Cellular Network Level Game Analysis of the Smart Grid Level Game Existence of Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game Uniqueness of the Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game Simulation Results and Discussions Conclusions Bibliography

About the Author

About the Editors: F. Richard Yu is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, School of Information Technology, at Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. He received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, in 2003. From 2002 to 2004, he was with Ericsson, Lund, Sweden, where he worked on the research and development of third-generation cellular networks. From 2005 to 2006, he was with a startup company in California, where he worked on the research and development in the areas of advanced wireless communication technologies and new standards. He joined the School of Information Technology and the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada, in 2007. His research interests include cross-layer design, security, and quality-of-service provisioning in wireless networks. He received the Carleton Research Achievement Award in 2012, the Ontario Early Researcher Award in 2011, the Excellent Contribution Award at IEEE/IFIP TrustCom 2010, the Leadership Opportunity Fund Award from Canada Foundation of Innovation in 2009 and the Best Paper Awards at IEEE/IFIP TrustCom 2009 and Int'l Conference on Networking 2005. His research interests include cross-layer design, security and QoS provisioning in wireless networks. Dr. Yu is a senior member of the IEEE. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals, including IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, ACM/Springer Wireless Networks, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications Networking, Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks, Wiley Journal on Security and Communication Networks, and International Journal of Wireless Communications and Networking, and a Guest Editor for IEEE Systems Journal for the special issue on Smart Grid Communications Systems. He has served on the Technical Program Committee (TPC) of numerous conferences, as the TPC Co-Chair of IEEE CCNC'13, INFOCOM-CCSES'2012, ICC-GCN'2012, VTC'2012S, Globecom'11, INFOCOM-GCN'2011, INFOCOM-CWCN'2010, IEEE IWCMC'2009, VTC'2008F andWiN-ITS'2007, as the Publication Chair of ICST QShine 2010, and the Co-Chair of ICUMT-CWCN'2009. Xi Zhang received the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Xidian University, Xian, China, the M.S. degree from Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, all in electrical engineering and computer science, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science (Electrical Engineering-Systems) from The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is currently an Associate Professor and the Founding Director of the Networking and Information Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station. He was an Assistant Professor and the Founding Director of the Division of Computer Systems Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Beijing Information Technology Engineering Institute, China, from 1984 to 1989. He was a Research Fellow with the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, James Cook University, Australia, under a Fellowship from the Chinese National Commission of Education. He was with the Networks and Distributed Systems Research Department, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hills, NJ, and with AT&T Laboratories Research, Florham Park, NJ. He has published more than 200 research papers in the areas of wireless networks and communications systems, mobile computing, network protocol design and modeling, statistical communications, random signal processing, information theory, and control theory and systems. Dr. Zhang received the U.S. National Science Foundation CAREER Award in 2004 for his research in the areas of mobile wireless and multicast networking and systems. He is an IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer. He received the Best Paper Awards in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2007, IEEE GLOBECOM 2009, and IEEE WCNC 2010, respectively. He also received the TEES Select Young Faculty Award for Excellence in Research Performance from the Dwight Look College of Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station, in 2006. He is currently serving as an Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, an Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, a Guest Editor for the IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS for the special issue on BroadbandWireless Communications for High Speed Vehicles," a Guest Editor for the IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS for the special issue on Wireless Video Transmissions," an Associate Editor for the IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, a Guest Editor for the IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE for the special issue on Advances in Cooperative Wireless Networking," a Guest Editor for the IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE for the special issue on Next Generation of CDMA Versus OFDMA for 4G Wireless Applications," an Editor for the JOHN WILEYs Journal on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, an Editor for the Journal of Computer Systems, Networking, and Communications, an Associate Editor for the JOHN WILEYS Journal on Security and Communications Networks, an Area Editor for the ELSEVIER Journal on Computer Communications, and a Guest Editor for JOHN WILEYS Journal on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing for the special issue on next generation wireless communications and mobile computing. He has frequently served as the Panelist on the U.S. National Science Foundation Research-Proposal Review Panels. He is serving or has served as the Technical Program Committee (TPC) Co-Chair for the IEEE INFOCOM 2013, the TPC Chair for the IEEE GLOBECOM 2011, Area TPC Chair for the IEEE INFOCOM 2012, General Co-Chair for INFOCOM 2012 - Workshop on communications and Control for Sustainable Energy Systems: Green Networking and Smart Grids, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE ICC 2012 - Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, General Co-Chair for IEEE INOFOCOM 2011 - Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, TPC Co-Chair for the IEEE ICDCS 2011 - Workshop on Data Center Performance, Panels/Demos/Posters Chairs for the ACM MobiCom 2011, TPC Vice-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2010, General Chair for the ACM QShine 2010, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2009 Mini-Conference, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE GLOBECOM2008 -Wireless Communications Symposium, TPC Co-Chair for the IEEE ICC 2008 - Information and Network Security Symposium, Symposium Chair for IEEE/ACM International Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Networks Symposium 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively, the TPC Chair for IEEE/ACM IWCMC 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively, the Demo/Poster Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2008, the Student Travel Grants Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2007, the General Chair for ACM QShine 2010, the Panel Co-Chair for IEEE ICCCN 2007, the Poster Chair for IEEE/ACMMSWiM 2007 and IEEE QShine 2006, Executive Committee Co-Chair for QShine, the Publicity Chair for IEEE/ACM QShine 2007 and IEEE WirelessCom 2005, and the Panelist on the Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Networks and Multimedia Communications at IEEE ICCCN 2007 and WiFi-Hotspots/WLAN and QoS Panel at IEEE QShine 2004. He has served as the TPC members for more than 100 IEEE/ACM conferences, including IEEE INFOCOM, IEEE GLOBECOM, IEEE ICC, IEEE WCNC, IEEE VTC, IEEE/ACM QShine, IEEE WoWMoM, IEEE ICCCN, etc. Victor C. M. Leung received the B.A.Sc. (Hons.) degree in electrical engineering from the University of British Columbia (U.B.C.) in 1977, and was awarded the APEBC Gold Medal as the head of the graduating class in the Faculty of Applied Science. He attended graduate school at U.B.C. on a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Postgraduate Scholarship and completed the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1981. From 1981 to 1987, Dr. Leung was a Senior Member of Technical Staff at MPR Teltech Ltd., specializing in the planning, design and analysis of satellite communication systems. In 1988, he started his academic career at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, where he was a Lecturer in the Department of Electronics. He returned to U.B.C. as a faculty member in 1989, currently holds the positions of Professor and TELUS Mobility Research Chair in Advanced Telecommunications Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is a member of the Institute for Computing, Information and Cognitive Systems at U.B.C. He also holds adjunct/guest faculty appointments at Jilin University, Beijing Jiaotong University, South China University of Technology, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. Dr. Leung has co-authored more than 500 technical papers in international journals and conference proceedings, and several of these papers had been selected for best paper awards. His research interests are in the areas of architectural and protocol design, management algorithms and performance analysis for computer and telecommunication networks, with a current focus on wireless networks and mobile systems. Dr. Leung is a registered professional engineer in the Province of British Columbia, Canada. He is a Fellow of IEEE, a Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada, and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering. He is a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Communications Society. He is serving on the editorial boards of the IEEE Transactions on Computers, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, Computer Communications, the Journal of Communications and Networks, as well as several other journals. Previously, he has served on the editorial boards of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Wireless Communications Series, the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications and the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. He has guest-edited several journal special issues, and served on the technical program committee of numerous international conferences. He is a General Co-chair of GCSG Workshop at Infocom 2012, GCN Workshop at ICC 2012, CIT 2012, FutureTech 2012, CSA 2011. He is a TPC Co-chair of the MAC and Cross-layer Design track of IEEEWCNC 2012. He chaired the TPC of the wireless networking and cognitive radio track in IEEE VTC-fall 2008. He was the General Chair of AdhocNets 2010, WC 2010, QShine 2007, and Symposium Chair for Next Generation Mobile Networks in IWCMC 2006-2008. He was a General Co-chair of Chinacom 2011, MobiWorld and GCN Workshops at IEEE Infocom 2011, BodyNets 2010, CWCN Workshop at Infocom 2010, ASIT Workshop at IEEE Globecom 2010, MobiWorld Workshop at IEEE CCNC 2010, IEEE EUC 2009 and ACM MSWiM 2006, and a TPC Vice-chair of IEEE WCNC 2005. He is a recipient of an IEEE Vancouver Section Centennial Award.

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