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Ground Engineering - Principles and Practices for Underground Coal Mining

This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of information on the subject. Throughout, a large variety of examples show good and bad mining situations in order to demonstrate the application, or absence, of the established principles in practice. Written by an expert in underground coal mining and risk management, this book will help students and practitioners gain a deep understanding of the basic principles behind designing and conducting mining operations that are safe, efficient, and economically viable. Provides a comprehensive coverage of ground engineering principles within a risk management framework Features a large variety of examples that show good and poor mining situations in order to demonstrate the application of the established principles in practice Ideal for students and practitioners About the author Emeritus Professor Jim Galvin has a relatively unique combination of industrial, research and academic experience in the mining industry that spans specialist research and applied knowledge in ground engineering, mine management and risk management. His career encompasses directing ground engineering research groups in South Africa and Australia; practical mining experience, including active participation in the mines rescue service and responsibility for the design, operation, and management of large underground coal mines and for the consequences of loss of ground control as a mine manager; appointments as Professor and Head of the School of Mining Engineering at the University of New South Wales; and safety advisor to a number of Boards of Directors of organisations associated with mining. Awards Winner of the ACARP Excellence Research Award 2016. The Australian Coal Industry's Research Program selects recipients to receive ACARP Research and Industry Excellence Awards every two years. The recipients are selected on the recommendation of technical committees. They are honored for achievement of a considerable advance in an area of importance to the Australian coal mining industry. An important criterion is the likelihood of the results from the project being applied in mines. Winner of the Merv Harris Award from the Mine Managers Association of Australia. The Merv Harris Award is named for Merv Harris who donated money to be invested for a continuing award in 1988. With the award, the Mine Managers Association of Australia honors members of the Association who demonstrate technical achievement in the Australian Coal Mining Industry. The first award was granted in 1990, since then, only two people have received this honor. The book has received the following awards.... AGS (Australian Geomechanics Society) congratulates Dr Galvin for these awards
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Table of Contents

1. SCOPE OF GROUND ENGINEERING 1.1. What is Ground Engineering 1.2. Peculiarities of Ground Engineering 1.3. State of the Art 1.4. Risk Management 1.5. The Impact of Risk Management and Technology 2. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR GROUND ENGINEERING 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Characteristics of Underground Coal Mining 2.2.1. Geological Setting 2.2.2. Mine Access 2.2.3. Mine Roadways 2.2.4. Mining Methods 2.3. Rock Mass Fabric 2.4. Physical Parameters 2.5. Material Properties 2.5.1. Load-Displacement 2.5.2. Stress-Strain 2.5.3. Stiffness 2.5.4. Strength 2.5.5. Stored Energy and Seismicity 2.5.6. Poisson's Effect 2.5.7. Cohesion and Friction on a Fracture Surface 2.5.8. Post-peak Strength Behaviour 2.6. Rock Mechanics 2.6.1. Specifying Stresses within Rock 2.6.2. Strength of Rock 2.6.3. Equivalent Modulus of Strata 2.6.4. Failure Criteria 2.6.5. Effective Stress 2.6.6. Primitive, Induced, Resultant and Field Stress 2.6.7. Field Stress in Coal 2.6.8. Field Shear Strength 2.6.9. Reduction in Confinement 2.6.10. Rock Mass Classification Systems 2.6.11. Failure Mode 2.6.12. Ground Response Curve 2.7. Analysis Techniques 2.7.1. Empirical Methods 2.7.2. Analytical Meth ods 2.7. 3. Numerical Methods 2.7.4. Safety Factor 2.7.5. Statistical and Probabilistic Analysis 2.8. Statics 2.8.1. Introduction 2.8.2. Basic Definitions and Principles 2.8.3. Transversely Loaded Beams 2.8.4. Axially Loaded Columns 2.8.5. Eccentrically Loaded Columns 2.8.6. Beam-Columns Subjected to Simultaneous Axial and Transverse Loading 2.8.7. Thin Plate Subjected to Axial and Transverse Load 2.8.8. Linear Arch Theory 2.8.9. Classical Beam Theory Applications in Ground Engineering 3. EXCAVATION MECHANICS 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Excavation Response 3.3. Caving Mechanics 3.3.1. Basic Principles 3.3.2. Strong Massive Strata 3.3.3. Span Design 3.4. Elevated Horizontal Stress 3.5. Shallow Mining 3.5.1. Principles 3.5.2. Practice 4. PILLAR SYSTEMS 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Functional, Risk Based Approach To Pillar Design 4.3. Pillar Working Stress 4.3.1. Pillar System Stiffness 4.3.2. Regular Bord and Pillar Layouts 4.3.3. Irregular Bord and Pillar Layouts 4.4. Pillar System Strength 4.4.1. Defining Pillar Strength and Failure 4.4.2. Geological Factors 4.4.3. Geometri c Facto rs 4.4.4. Scale F actors 4.4.5. Determi ning Pillar Streng th 4 .5. Quantifying Desig n Risk 4.5.1. Probabi listic Stability Prediction 4.5.2. Probabilistic Design 4.5.3. Summary Points 4.6. Pillar Failure Modes 4.6.1. Types 4.6.2. Conventional Failure Mode 4.6.3. Dynamic Confined Core Failure 4.7. The Complexity of Pillar Behaviour 4.8. Pillar Design Considerations 4.8.1. Empirical Data Regime 4.8.2. Stiff Superincumbent Strata 4.8.3. Behaviour 4.8.4. Seam Specific Strength 4.8.5. Ground Response Curve 4.8.6. Correlations Between Safety Factor and Performance Probability 4.8.7. UNSW Pillar Design Methodology 4.8.8. Diamond Shaped Pillars 4.8.9. Irregular Pillar Shapes 4.8.10. Highwall Mining 5. INTERACTION BETWEEN WORKINGS 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Workings in the Same Seam 5.2.1. Framework 5.2.2. Pillar Systems 5.2.3. Roadways 5.2.4. Panels 5.2.5. Interaction Between Roadways and Excavations 5.3. Multiseam Workings 5.3.1. Framework 5.3.2. Pillar Systems 5.3.3. Extraction Panels 6. SUPPORT AND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Primary Chara cteristics 6.3. Stand ing Support 6.3.1. Pr ops 6.3 .2. Timber Cho cks 6.3.3. Cement itious Chocks 6.3.4. Steel Arches and Sets 6.3. 5. Pillars 6.4. Tend on Support and Reinforcement 6.4.1. Scope 6.4.2. Functio ns of Tendons 6. 4.3. Anchorage of Tendons <6.4.4. Practical Considerations 6.5. Surface Restraint Systems 6.5.1. Scope 6.5.2. Cross Supports 6.5.3. Screens 6.5.4. Membranes and Liners 6.6. Spiling 6.7. Strata Binders 6.8. Void Fillers 7. GROUND SUPPORT DESIGN 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Roof Control 7.2.1. Failure Modes 7.2.2. Generic Design Approaches 7.3. Theoretical Roof Support Design Aspects 7.3.1. Classical Beam Theory 7.3.2. Contribution of Long Central Tendons 7.3.3. UCS - E Correlations 7.3.4. Rock Mass Classification Systems 7.3.5. Reinforcement Density Indices 7.3.6. Numerical Modelling 7.4. Summary Conclusions 7.5. Operational Roof Support Design Aspects 7.5.1. Roadway Span 7.5.2. Timing of Installation 7.5.3. Role and Timing of Centre Tendons 7.5.4. Effectiveness of Pretension 7.5.5. Stress Relief 7.5.6. Coal Roof 7.5.7. Floor 7.5.8. Monitoring at Height 7.5. 9. Mining Through Cro ss Measures 7.6. Rib Control 7.6.1. Introduction 7.6.2. Risk Profile 7.6.3. Rib Comp osition 7.6.4. Rib Behaviour 7.6.5. Design Consid erations 7.6.6. Suppor t Hardware Considerations 7.6.7. Op erational Considerati ons 7.6.8. Sum mary Conclusions 8. PILL AR EXTRACTION 8.1. Introduction 8 .2. Attributes of Pillar Extraction 8.3. Basic Pillar Extraction Techniques 8.3.1. Design and Support Terminology 8.3.2. Total Extraction Methods 8.3.3. Partial Extraction Methods 8.4. Ground Control Considerations 8.4.1. Introduction 8.4.2. Regional Stability 8.4.3. Panel Stability 8.4.4. Workplace Stability 8.5. Operating Discipline 9. LONGWALL MINING 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Panel Layout 9.2.1. Basic Longwall Mining Methods 9.2.2. Gateroad Direction and Layout 9.2.3. Chain Pillar Life Cycle 9.2.4. Chain Pillar Design 9.2.5. Chain Pillar/Gateroad Behaviour 9.3. Longwall Powered Supports 9.3.1. Development 9.3.2. Basic Functions 9.3.3. Static and Kinematic Characteristics 9.4. Operational Variables 9.4.1. Cutting Technique and Support Configuration 9.4.2. Powered Support System Maintenanc e 9.4.3. Face Operati ng Practices 9.5. Longwall Face Str ata Control 9. 5.1. Introduction 9.5 .2. Coal Face 9 .5.3. Floor 9.5.4. Im medi ate and Upper Roof Strata 9.6. Installation Roadways 9.7. Pre-driven R oadways Within A Longwall Block 9.7.1. Generic Types and Mining Practices 9.7.2. Pre-Driven Longwall R ecovery Roadways 9.8. Longwall Face Recove ry 9.9. Other Longwal l Variants 9.9.1. Longwall Top Coal Caving 9.9. 2. Miniwall 10. OVERBURDEN SUBSIDENCE 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Generic Behaviours 10.3. Sub-Surface Subsidence 10.3.1. Fundamentals 10.3.2. Subsurface Effects 10.3.3. Impacts 10.4. Surface Subsidence 10.4.1. Introduction 10.4.2. Sinkhole and Plug Subsidence 10.4.3. Classical Subsidence Behaviour 10.4.4. Site-Centric Subsidence 10.4.5. Prediction of Classical Surface Subsidence 10.4.6. Prediction of Site-centric Subsidence 10.4.7. Surface Subsidence Impacts 10.4.8. Mitigation and Remediation 11. OPERATIONAL HAZARDS 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Windblast 11.2.1. Introduction 11.2.2. Behaviour Features 11.2.3. Risk Management of Windblasts 11.3. Feather Edging 11.4. Top Coaling an d Bottom Coaling 11.5. Dippi ng Workings 11.6. Inrush 11.6.1. Def inition 11.6.2. Criti cal Factors and Considerations 11.7. Flooded Workings 11.8. Bumps and Pressure Bur sts 11.8.1 . Definitio ns 11.8.2. Pressure Burst Failure Mechanisms 11.8.3. Sei smic Events Associated with Rock Failure 11.8.4. Seismic Events Associated with Discontinuities 11.8.5. Risk Management of Pressure Bursts 11.9. Gas Outbursts 11.9.1. Definition 11.9.2. Behaviour Features 11.9.3. Risk Management of Outbursts 11.10. Mining Through Faults a nd Dykes 11.11. Frictional Ignition Involving Rock 11.12. Backfilling of Bord and Pillar Workings 11.13. Roof Falls 11.13.1. Effect on Pillar Strength 11.13.2. Roof Fall Recovery 11.14. Experimental Panels 11.15. Alternative Rock Bolt Applications 11.16. Convergence Zones and Paleochannels 12. MANAGING RISK IN GROUND ENGINEERING 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Ground Control Management Plan 12.2.1. Basis for a Ground Control Management Plan 12.2.2. Structure of a Ground Control Management Plan 12.2.3. Competencies 12.3. Risk Analysis Foundations 12.4. Types of Risk Assessment 12.5. Risk Assessment Process 12.5.1. Context 12.5.2. Team Comp osition <12.5.3. Controls 12.5.4. O ther Process Co nsiderations 12.6. Implementation 12.6.1. Hazard Plans 1 2.6.2. Trigger Action Response Plan s 12.6.3. Review <12.6.4. Change Management 12.6.5. O ther Implementation Considerations 12.6.6. Determining Acceptable Levels of Risk 12.6.7. Reviewing A Risk Assessment 12.7. Moni toring 12.7.1. Purpose 12.7.2. Monitoring Strategy 12.7.3. Sens ory Monitoring 12.7.4. Monitoring w ith Instrumentation 12.7.5. Displac ement Monitoring Instrumenta tion 12.7.6. Stress Monitori ng Instrumentation 12.7.7. O ther Instrumentation 12.7.8. Field Monitoring Prac tices 12.8. Concluding Remarks GLOSSARY OF TERMS GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS SYMBOLS IN METRIC SYSTEM Appendices

About the Author

Emeritus Professor Jim Galvin has a relatively unique combination of industrial, research and academic experience in the mining industry that spans specialist research and applied knowledge in ground engineering, mine management and risk management. His career encompasses directing ground engineering research groups in South Africa and Australia; practical mining experience, including active participation in the mines rescue service and responsibility for the design, operation, and management of large underground coal mines and for the consequences of loss of ground control as a mine manager; appointments as Professor and Head of the School of Mining Engineering at the University of New South Wales; and safety advisor to a number of Boards of Directors of organisations associated with mining.


"Each of the 12 chapters begins with an abstract and a list of keywords, and ends with a reference list. ... The book is splendidly illustrated with presentations of quantitative data, mine plans and photographs of some of the untoward things that can happen in underground mines. ... Ground engineering should attract international sales and help mine operators to achieve optimum mining efficiency without compromising safety." (Professor Ian Rae, ATSE Focus, Issue 199, December, 2016) "To the knowledge of the reviewer there is no comparable text that covers ground engineering principles and underground coal mining practice in such a comprehensive way. This book fills a serious gap in the mining and rock mechanics literature. ... This book is not only of value to ground engineering specialists on coal mines, but will be of equal value to coal mine planning personnel, coal mine managers, and mining authorities." (Horst Wagner, The Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, November, 2016)"The book provides a very logical and complete approach to all of the major ground engineering challenges facing modern underground coal mines ... . I have no doubt that this book has filled a major void in the field, not just in Australia, but also internationally. ... it will rapidly become a `must-have' reference book, not just for students and researchers, but as a life-long reference point for career professionals working in the underground coal sectors around the world." (Bruce Hebblewhite, Bulletin Magazine, August, 2016) "The book provides an outstanding, detailed and much needed, account of ground engineering principles and their application in underground coal mining practice in Australia and internationally. ... I recommend this book unreservedly to all those having responsibility for identifying and managing ground control-related risk issues in underground coal mines, including mine managers, planners, operators, geotechnical engineers (including consultants), mining regulators, academics and especially mining engineering students." (Edwin T. Brown, Australian Geomechanics, Vol. 51 (1), March, 2016)

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