1. SCOPE OF GROUND ENGINEERING 1.1. What is Ground Engineering 1.2. Peculiarities of Ground Engineering 1.3. State of the Art 1.4. Risk Management 1.5. The Impact of Risk Management and Technology 2. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR GROUND ENGINEERING 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Characteristics of Underground Coal Mining 2.2.1. Geological Setting 2.2.2. Mine Access 2.2.3. Mine Roadways 2.2.4. Mining Methods 2.3. Rock Mass Fabric 2.4. Physical Parameters 2.5. Material Properties 2.5.1. Load-Displacement 2.5.2. Stress-Strain 2.5.3. Stiffness 2.5.4. Strength 2.5.5. Stored Energy and Seismicity 2.5.6. Poisson's Effect 2.5.7. Cohesion and Friction on a Fracture Surface 2.5.8. Post-peak Strength Behaviour 2.6. Rock Mechanics 2.6.1. Specifying Stresses within Rock 2.6.2. Strength of Rock 2.6.3. Equivalent Modulus of Strata 2.6.4. Failure Criteria 2.6.5. Effective Stress 2.6.6. Primitive, Induced, Resultant and Field Stress 2.6.7. Field Stress in Coal 2.6.8. Field Shear Strength 2.6.9. Reduction in Confinement 2.6.10. Rock Mass Classification Systems 2.6.11. Failure Mode 2.6.12. Ground Response Curve 2.7. Analysis Techniques 2.7.1. Empirical Methods 2.7.2. Analytical Methods 2.7.3. Numerical Methods 2.7.4. Safety Factor 2.7.5. Statistical and Probabilistic Analysis 2.8. Statics 2.8.1. Introduction 2.8.2. Basic Definitions and Principles 2.8.3. Transversely Loaded Beams 2.8.4. Axially Loaded Columns 2.8.5. Eccentrically Loaded Columns 2.8.6. Beam-Columns Subjected to Simultaneous Axial and Transverse Loading 2.8.7. Thin Plate Subjected to Axial and Transverse Load 2.8.8. Linear Arch Theory 2.8.9. Classical Beam Theory Applications in Ground Engineering 3. EXCAVATION MECHANICS 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Excavation Response 3.3. Caving Mechanics 3.3.1. Basic Principles 3.3.2. Strong Massive Strata 3.3.3. Span Design 3.4. Elevated Horizontal Stress 3.5. Shallow Mining 3.5.1. Principles 3.5.2. Practice 4. PILLAR SYSTEMS 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Functional, Risk Based Approach To Pillar Design 4.3. Pillar Working Stress 4.3.1. Pillar System Stiffness 4.3.2. Regular Bord and Pillar Layouts 4.3.3. Irregular Bord and Pillar Layouts 4.4. Pillar System Strength 4.4.1. Defining Pillar Strength and Failure 4.4.2. Geological Factors 4.4.3. Geometric Factors 4.4.4. Scale Factors 4.4.5. Determining Pillar Strength 4.5. Quantifying Design Risk 4.5.1. Probabilistic Stability Prediction 4.5.2. Probabilistic Design 4.5.3. Summary Points 4.6. Pillar Failure Modes 4.6.1. Types 4.6.2. Conventional Failure Mode 4.6.3. Dynamic Confined Core Failure 4.7. The Complexity of Pillar Behaviour 4.8. Pillar Design Considerations 4.8.1. Empirical Data Regime 4.8.2. Stiff Superincumbent Strata 4.8.3. Behaviour 4.8.4. Seam Specific Strength 4.8.5. Ground Response Curve 4.8.6. Correlations Between Safety Factor and Performance Probability 4.8.7. UNSW Pillar Design Methodology 4.8.8. Diamond Shaped Pillars 4.8.9. Irregular Pillar Shapes 4.8.10. Highwall Mining 5. INTERACTION BETWEEN WORKINGS 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Workings in the Same Seam 5.2.1. Framework 5.2.2. Pillar Systems 5.2.3. Roadways 5.2.4. Panels 5.2.5. Interaction Between Roadways and Excavations 5.3. Multiseam Workings 5.3.1. Framework 5.3.2. Pillar Systems 5.3.3. Extraction Panels 6. SUPPORT AND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Primary Characteristics 6.3. Standing Support 6.3.1. Props 6.3.2. Timber Chocks 6.3.3. Cementitious Chocks 6.3.4. Steel Arches and Sets 6.3.5. Pillars 6.4. Tendon Support and Reinforcement 6.4.1. Scope 6.4.2. Functions of Tendons 6.4.3. Anchorage of Tendons <6.4.4. Practical Considerations 6.5. Surface Restraint Systems 6.5.1. Scope 6.5.2. Cross Supports 6.5.3. Screens 6.5.4. Membranes and Liners 6.6. Spiling 6.7. Strata Binders 6.8. Void Fillers 7. GROUND SUPPORT DESIGN 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Roof Control 7.2.1. Failure Modes 7.2.2. Generic Design Approaches 7.3. Theoretical Roof Support Design Aspects 7.3.1. Classical Beam Theory 7.3.2. Contribution of Long Central Tendons 7.3.3. UCS - E Correlations 7.3.4. Rock Mass Classification Systems 7.3.5. Reinforcement Density Indices 7.3.6. Numerical Modelling 7.4. Summary Conclusions 7.5. Operational Roof Support Design Aspects 7.5.1. Roadway Span 7.5.2. Timing of Installation 7.5.3. Role and Timing of Centre Tendons 7.5.4. Effectiveness of Pretension 7.5.5. Stress Relief 7.5.6. Coal Roof 7.5.7. Floor 7.5.8. Monitoring at Height 7.5.9. Mining Through Cross Measures 7.6. Rib Control 7.6.1. Introduction 7.6.2. Risk Profile 7.6.3. Rib Composition 7.6.4. Rib Behaviour 7.6.5. Design Considerations 7.6.6. Support Hardware Considerations 7.6.7. Operational Considerations 7.6.8. Summary Conclusions 8. PILLAR EXTRACTION 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Attributes of Pillar Extraction 8.3. Basic Pillar Extraction Techniques 8.3.1. Design and Support Terminology 8.3.2. Total Extraction Methods 8.3.3. Partial Extraction Methods 8.4. Ground Control Considerations 8.4.1. Introduction 8.4.2. Regional Stability 8.4.3. Panel Stability 8.4.4. Workplace Stability 8.5. Operating Discipline 9. LONGWALL MINING 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Panel Layout 9.2.1. Basic Longwall Mining Methods 9.2.2. Gateroad Direction and Layout 9.2.3. Chain Pillar Life Cycle 9.2.4. Chain Pillar Design 9.2.5. Chain Pillar/Gateroad Behaviour 9.3. Longwall Powered Supports 9.3.1. Development 9.3.2. Basic Functions 9.3.3. Static and Kinematic Characteristics 9.4. Operational Variables 9.4.1. Cutting Technique and Support Configuration 9.4.2. Powered Support System Maintenance 9.4.3. Face Operating Practices 9.5. Longwall Face Strata Control 9.5.1. Introduction 9.5.2. Coal Face 9.5.3. Floor 9.5.4. Immediate and Upper Roof Strata 9.6. Installation Roadways 9.7. Pre-driven Roadways Within A Longwall Block 9.7.1. Generic Types and Mining Practices 9.7.2. Pre-Driven Longwall Recovery Roadways 9.8. Longwall Face Recovery 9.9. Other Longwall Variants 9.9.1. Longwall Top Coal Caving 9.9.2. Miniwall 10. OVERBURDEN SUBSIDENCE 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Generic Behaviours 10.3. Sub-Surface Subsidence 10.3.1. Fundamentals 10.3.2. Subsurface Effects 10.3.3. Impacts 10.4. Surface Subsidence 10.4.1. Introduction 10.4.2. Sinkhole and Plug Subsidence 10.4.3. Classical Subsidence Behaviour 10.4.4. Site-Centric Subsidence 10.4.5. Prediction of Classical Surface Subsidence 10.4.6. Prediction of Site-centric Subsidence 10.4.7. Surface Subsidence Impacts 10.4.8. Mitigation and Remediation 11. OPERATIONAL HAZARDS 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Windblast 11.2.1. Introduction 11.2.2. Behaviour Features 11.2.3. Risk Management of Windblasts 11.3. Feather Edging 11.4. Top Coaling and Bottom Coaling 11.5. Dipping Workings 11.6. Inrush 11.6.1. Definition 11.6.2. Critical Factors and Considerations 11.7. Flooded Workings 11.8. Bumps and Pressure Bursts 11.8.1. Definitions 11.8.2. Pressure Burst Failure Mechanisms 11.8.3. Seismic Events Associated with Rock Failure 11.8.4. Seismic Events Associated with Discontinuities 11.8.5. Risk Management of Pressure Bursts 11.9. Gas Outbursts 11.9.1. Definition 11.9.2. Behaviour Features 11.9.3. Risk Management of Outbursts 11.10. Mining Through Faults and Dykes 11.11. Frictional Ignition Involving Rock 11.12. Backfilling of Bord and Pillar Workings 11.13. Roof Falls 11.13.1. Effect on Pillar Strength 11.13.2. Roof Fall Recovery 11.14. Experimental Panels 11.15. Alternative Rock Bolt Applications 11.16. Convergence Zones and Paleochannels 12. MANAGING RISK IN GROUND ENGINEERING 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Ground Control Management Plan 12.2.1. Basis for a Ground Control Management Plan 12.2.2. Structure of a Ground Control Management Plan 12.2.3. Competencies 12.3. Risk Analysis Foundations 12.4. Types of Risk Assessment 12.5. Risk Assessment Process 12.5.1. Context 12.5.2. Team Composition <12.5.3. Controls 12.5.4. Other Process Considerations 12.6. Implementation 12.6.1. Hazard Plans 12.6.2. Trigger Action Response Plans 12.6.3. Review <12.6.4. Change Management 12.6.5. Other Implementation Considerations 12.6.6. Determining Acceptable Levels of Risk 12.6.7. Reviewing A Risk Assessment 12.7. Monitoring 12.7.1. Purpose 12.7.2. Monitoring Strategy 12.7.3. Sensory Monitoring 12.7.4. Monitoring with Instrumentation 12.7.5. Displacement Monitoring Instrumentation 12.7.6. Stress Monitoring Instrumentation 12.7.7. Other Instrumentation 12.7.8. Field Monitoring Practices 12.8. Concluding Remarks GLOSSARY OF TERMS GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS SYMBOLS IN METRIC SYSTEM Appendices
Emeritus Professor Jim Galvin has a relatively unique combination of industrial, research and academic experience in the mining industry that spans specialist research and applied knowledge in ground engineering, mine management and risk management. His career encompasses directing ground engineering research groups in South Africa and Australia; practical mining experience, including active participation in the mines rescue service and responsibility for the design, operation, and management of large underground coal mines and for the consequences of loss of ground control as a mine manager; appointments as Professor and Head of the School of Mining Engineering at the University of New South Wales; and safety advisor to a number of Boards of Directors of organisations associated with mining.
"Each of the 12 chapters begins with an abstract and a list of keywords, and ends with a reference list. ... The book is splendidly illustrated with presentations of quantitative data, mine plans and photographs of some of the untoward things that can happen in underground mines. ... Ground engineering should attract international sales and help mine operators to achieve optimum mining efficiency without compromising safety." (Professor Ian Rae, ATSE Focus, Issue 199, December, 2016)"To the knowledge of the reviewer there is no comparable text that covers ground engineering principles and underground coal mining practice in such a comprehensive way. This book fills a serious gap in the mining and rock mechanics literature. ... This book is not only of value to ground engineering specialists on coal mines, but will be of equal value to coal mine planning personnel, coal mine managers, and mining authorities." (Horst Wagner, The Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, November, 2016)"The book provides a very logical and complete approach to all of the major ground engineering challenges facing modern underground coal mines ... . I have no doubt that this book has filled a major void in the field, not just in Australia, but also internationally. ... it will rapidly become a `must-have' reference book, not just for students and researchers, but as a life-long reference point for career professionals working in the underground coal sectors around the world." (Bruce Hebblewhite, Bulletin Magazine, August, 2016)"The book provides an outstanding, detailed and much needed, account of ground engineering principles and their application in underground coal mining practice in Australia and internationally. ... I recommend this book unreservedly to all those having responsibility for identifying and managing ground control-related risk issues in underground coal mines, including mine managers, planners, operators, geotechnical engineers (including consultants), mining regulators, academics and especially mining engineering students." (Edwin T. Brown, Australian Geomechanics, Vol. 51 (1), March, 2016)