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Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xiii NOTATION AND ABBREVIATIONS xv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 From the Metal Column to the Structural System 1 1.2 Scope and Summary of the Guide 2 1.3 Mechanical Properties of Structural Metals 3 1.4 Definitions 5 1.5 Postbuckling Behavior 8 1.6 Credits for the Chapters in the Sixth Edition of the SSRC Guide 9 References 11 CHAPTER 2 STABILITY THEORY 12 2.1 Introduction 12 2.2 Bifurcation Buckling 13 2.3 Limit-Load Buckling 20 References 22 CHAPTER 3 CENTRALLY LOADED COLUMNS 23 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 Column Strength 25 3.3 Influence of Imperfections 29 3.4 Influence of End Restraint 44 3.5 Strength Criteria for Steel Columns 52 3.6 Aluminum Columns 63 3.7 Stainless Steel Columns 79 3.8 Tapered Columns 85 3.9 Built-Up Columns 90 3.10 Stepped Columns 104 3.11 Guyed Towers 109 References 114 CHAPTER 4 PLATES 128 4.1 Introduction 128 4.2 Elastic Local Buckling of Flat Plates 130 4.3 Inelastic Buckling, Postbuckling, and Strength of Flat Plates 145 4.4 Buckling, Postbuckling, and Strength of Stiffened Plates 163 4.5 Buckling of Orthotropic Plates 180 4.6 Interaction between Plate Elements 188 References 193 CHAPTER 5 BEAMS 205 5.1 Introduction 205 5.2 Elastic Lateral?Torsional Buckling, Prismatic I-Section Members 208 5.3 Fundamental Comparison of Design Standards, Prismatic I-Section Members 232 5.4 Stepped, Variable Web Depth and Other Nonprismatic I-Section Members 236 5.5 Continuous-Span Composite I-Section Members 240 5.6 Beams with Other Cross-Sectional Types 242 5.7 Design for Inelastic Deformation Capacity 243 5.8 Concluding Remarks 246 References 247 CHAPTER 6 PLATE GIRDERS 257 6.1 Introduction 257 6.2 Preliminary Sizing 259 6.3 Web Buckling as a Basis for Design 261 6.4 Shear Strength of Plate Girders 262 6.5 Girders with No Intermediate Stiffeners 274 6.6 Steel Plate Shear Walls 275 6.7 Bending Strength of Plate Girders 277 6.8 Combined Bending and Shear 280 6.9 Plate Girders with Longitudinal Stiffeners 283 6.10 End Panels 290 6.11 Design of Stiffeners 290 6.12 Panels under Edge Loading 293 6.13 Fatigue 305 6.14 Design Principles and Philosophies 305 6.15 Girders with Corrugated Webs 306 6.16 Research Needs 311 References 312 CHAPTER 7 BOX GIRDERS 321 7.1 Introduction 321 7.2 Bases of Design 323 7.3 Buckling of Wide Flanges 326 7.4 Bending Strength of Box Girders 344 7.5 Nominal Shear Strength of Box Girders 345 7.6 Strength of Box Girders under Combined Bending, Compression, and Shear 348 7.7 Influence of Torsion on Strength of Box Girders 353 7.8 Diaphragms 353 7.9 Top-Flange Lateral Bracing of Quasi-Closed Sections 365 7.10 Research Needs 367 References 368 CHAPTER 8 BEAM-COLUMNS 371 8.1 Introduction 371 8.2 Strength of Beam-Columns 373 8.3 Uniaxial Bending: In-Plane Strength 375 8.4 Uniaxial Bending: Lateral?Torsional Buckling 386 8.5 Equivalent Uniform Moment Factor 392 8.6 Biaxial Bending 394 8.7 Special Topics 404 References 405 CHAPTER 9 HORIZONTALLY CURVED STEEL GIRDERS 413 9.1 Introduction 413 9.2 Historical Review 414 9.3 Fabrication and Construction 416 9.4 Analysis Methods 421 9.5 Stability of Curved I-Girders 423 9.6 Stability of Curved Box Girders 440 9.7 Concluding Remarks 442 References 442 CHAPTER 10 COMPOSITE COLUMNS AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 456 10.1 Introduction 456 10.2 U.S.?Japan Research Program 460 10.3 Cross-Sectional Strength of Composite Sections 467 10.4 Other Considerations for Cross-Sectional Strength 471 10.5 Length Effects 473 10.6 Force Transfer between Concrete and Steel 474 10.7 Design Approaches 478 10.8 Structural Systems and Connections for Composite and Hybrid Structures 484 10.9 Summary 486 References 486 CHAPTER 11 STABILITY OF ANGLE MEMBERS 493 11.1 Introduction 493 11.2 Review of Experimental and Analytical Research 494 11.3 Single-Angle Compression Members 501 11.4 Current Industry Practice for Hot-Rolled Single-Angle Members in the United States 507 11.5 Design Criteria for Hot-Rolled Angle Columns in Europe, Australia, and Japan 511 11.6 Design of Axially Loaded Cold-Formed Single Angles 512 11.7 Concluding Remarks on the Compressive Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Single-Angle Members 514 11.8 Multiple Angles in Compression 514 11.9 Angles in Flexure 522 References 526 CHAPTER 12 BRACING 531 12.1 Introduction 531 12.2 Background 533 12.3 Safety Factors, ? Factors, and Definitions 536 12.4 Relative Braces for Columns or Frames 537 12.5 Discrete Bracing Systems for Columns 538 12.6 Continuous Column Bracing 541 12.7 Lean-on Systems 542 12.8 Columns Braced on One Flange 544 12.9 Beam Buckling and Bracing 545 12.10 Beam Bracing 546 References 553 CHAPTER 13 THIN-WALLED METAL CONSTRUCTION 556 13.1 Introduction 556 13.2 Member Stability Modes (Elastic) 557 13.3 Effective Width Member Design 571 13.4 Direct Strength Member Design 581 13.5 Additional Design Considerations 596 13.6 Structural Assemblies 599 13.7 Stainless Steel Structural Members 604 13.8 Aluminum Structural Members 606 13.9 Torsional Buckling 610 References 611 CHAPTER 14 CIRCULAR TUBES AND SHELLS 626 14.1 Introduction 626 14.2 Description of Buckling Behavior 629 14.3 Unstiffened or Heavy-Ring-Stiffened Cylinders 631 14.4 General Instability of Ring-Stiffened Cylinders 651 14.5 Stringer- or Ring-and-Stringer-Stiffened Cylinders 658 14.6 Effects on Column Buckling 660 14.7 Cylinders Subjected to Combined Loadings 664 14.8 Strength and Behavior of Damaged and Repaired Tubular Columns 669 References 669 CHAPTER 15 MEMBERS WITH ELASTIC LATERAL RESTRAINTS 678 15.1 Introduction 678 15.2 Buckling of the Compression Chord 679 15.3 Effect of Secondary Factors on Buckling Load 685 15.4 Top-Chord Stresses due to Bending of Floor Beams and to Initial Chord Eccentricities 686 15.5 Design Example 686 15.6 Plate Girder with Elastically Braced Compression Flange 689 15.7 Guyed Towers 689 References 690 CHAPTER 16 FRAME STABILITY 692 16.1 Introduction 692 16.2 Methods of Analysis 693 16.3 Frame Behavior 705 16.4 Frame Stability Assessment Using Second-Order Analysis 724 16.5 Overview of Current Code Provisions 741 16.6 Structural Integrity and Disproportionate Collapse Resistance 748 16.7 Concluding Remarks 753 References 754 CHAPTER 17 ARCHES 762 17.1 Introduction 762 17.2 In-Plane Stability of Arches 764 17.3 Out-of-Plane Stability of Arches 782 17.4 Braced Arches and Requirements for Bracing Systems 792 17.5 Ultimate Strength of Steel Arch Bridges 798 References 802 CHAPTER 18 DOUBLY CURVED SHELLS AND SHELL-LIKE STRUCTURES 807 18.1 Introduction 807 18.2 The Basic Problem 810 18.3 Finite Element Method 814 18.4 Design Codes 816 18.5 Design Aids 818 18.6 Reticulated Shells 819 18.7 Design Trends and Research Needs 821 References 821 CHAPTER 19 STABILITY UNDER SEISMIC LOADING 824 19.1 Introduction 824 19.2 Design for Local and Member Stability 831 19.3 Global System Stability (P? Effects) 882 References 910 CHAPTER 20 STABILITY ANALYSIS BY THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 933 20.1 Introduction 933 20.2 Nonlinear Analysis 940 20.3 Linearized Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis 943 References 956 APPENDIX A GENERAL REFERENCES ON STRUCTURAL STABILITY 959 APPENDIX B TECHNICAL MEMORANDA OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY RESEARCH COUNCIL 963 B.1 Technical Memorandum No. 1: The Basic Column Formula 963 B.2 Technical Memorandum No. 2: Notes on the Compression Testing of Metals 965 B.3 Technical Memorandum No. 3: Stub-Column Test Procedure 970 B.4 Technical Memorandum No. 4: Procedure for Testing Centrally Loaded Columns 978 B.5 Technical Memorandum No. 5: General Principles for the Stability Design of Metal Structures 991 B.6 Technical Memorandum No. 6: Determination of Residual Stresses 993 B.7 Technical Memorandum No. 7: Tension Testing 1002 B.8 Technical Memorandum No. 8: Standard Methods and Definitions for Tests for Static Yield Stress 1006 B.9 Technical Memorandum No. 9: Flexural Testing 1013 B.10 Technical Memorandum No. 10: Statistical Evaluation of Test Data for Limit States Design 1021 References 1027 APPENDIX C STRUCTURAL STABILITY RESEARCH COUNCIL 1030 NAME INDEX 1035 SUBJECT INDEX 1057

About the Author

Ronald D. Ziemian, PhD, PE, professor of civil engineering at Bucknell University, was the recipient of the 2006 AISC Special Achievement Award and the 1992 ASCE Norman Medal for his work in advancing the use of nonlinear analysis in the stability design of steel structures. He is the coauthor of Matrix Structural Analysis, Second Edition (also from Wiley), chairs the SSRC Executive Committee and the AISC Task Committee 10 on Frame Stability, and further serves on the AISC and Aluminum Association specification committees.

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