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Guidelines for Laboratory Design
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Table of Contents

FOREWORD xv PREFACE xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix ABOUT THE AUTHORS xxi ABBREVIATIONS xxiii UNITS xxv ORGANIZATIONS REFERENCED xxvii INTRODUCTION xxix How to Use This Book, xxx Book Organization, xxxi Computational Fluid Dynamics, xxxiii PART IA COMMON ELEMENTS OF LABORATORY DESIGN 1 1 Building Considerations 3 1.1 Guiding Concepts, 3 1.2 Building Layout, 3 1.3 Guiding Principles for Building Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, 44 1.4 Guiding Concepts for Laboratory Building Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 51 1.5 Miscellaneous Services, 56 2 Laboratory Considerations 65 PART IB COMMON ELEMENTS OF RENOVATIONS 109 3 Renovations: Building Considerations 123 3.1 Guiding Concepts, 123 3.2 Building Layout, 125 3.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, 129 3.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 133 3.5 Miscellaneous Services, 134 4 Renovations: Laboratory Considerations 136 4.1 Guiding Concepts, 136 4.2 Laboratory Layout, 137 4.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, 138 4.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 138 PART II DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR A NUMBER OF COMMONLY USED LABORATORIES 141 5 General or Analytical Chemistry Laboratory 143 5.1 Description, 143 5.2 Laboratory Layout, 144 5.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 146 5.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 149 5.5 Special Requirements, 149 6 High-Toxicity Laboratory 150 6.1 Description, 150 6.2 Laboratory Layout, 151 6.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 153 6.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 154 6.5 Special Requirements, 155 7 Nanotechnology Laboratories 156 7.1 Description, 156 7.2 Laboratory Layout, 156 7.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 157 7.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 158 8 Engineering Laboratories 160 8.1 Description, 160 8.2 Engineering Disciplines and Some of Their Most Common Laboratory Types, 160 8.3 Wind Tunnel Laboratory, 161 8.4 Jet and Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, 162 8.5 Hydraulics Laboratory, 164 8.6 Material Analysis and Testing Laboratory, 165 8.7 Electrical Circuits, Motors, and Generators Laboratory, 165 8.8 Foundry Laboratory, 167 8.9 Internal Combustion and Gas Turbine Engine Laboratory, 169 9 Pilot Plant: Chemical, Engineering, and Biological 173 9.1 Description, 173 9.2 Pilot Plant Layout, 174 9.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 174 9.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 175 9.5 Special Requirements, 175 10 Physics Laboratory 177 10.1 Description, 177 10.2 Laboratory Layout, 178 10.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 179 10.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 179 10.5 Special Requirements, 181 11 Controlled Environment Room: Hot or Cold 182 11.1 Description, 182 11.2 Laboratory Layout, 183 11.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 183 11.4 Loss Prevention, 185 11.5 Special Requirements, 185 12 High-Pressure Laboratory 187 12.1 Description, 187 12.2 Laboratory Layout, 188 12.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 188 12.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 189 12.5 Special Requirements, 189 13 Radiation Laboratory 190 13.1 Description, 190 13.2 Laboratory Layout, 191 13.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 194 13.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 195 13.5 Special Considerations, 195 14 Biosafety Laboratory 196 14.1 Description, 196 14.2 Laboratory Layout, 202 14.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 212 14.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 213 14.5 Special Requirements, 213 15 Clinical Laboratories 216 15.1 Description, 216 15.2 Laboratory Layout, 218 15.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 222 15.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 223 16 Teaching Laboratory 227 16.1 Description, 227 16.2 Laboratory Layout, 228 16.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 234 16.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 235 17 Gross Anatomy Laboratory 238 17.1 Description, 238 17.2 Laboratory Layout, 239 17.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 243 17.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 244 17.5 Security, 245 18 Pathology Laboratory 246 18.1 Description, 246 18.2 Laboratory Layout, 249 18.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 251 18.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 251 18.5 Special Requirements, 252 19 Autopsy Laboratory 253 19.1 Description, 253 19.2 Laboratory Layout, 255 19.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 260 19.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 261 20 Morgue Facility 262 20.1 Description, 262 20.2 Laboratory Layout, 265 20.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 269 20.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 269 21 Open or Team Research Laboratory 271 21.1 Description, 271 21.2 Laboratory Layout, 272 21.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 275 21.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 275 21.5 Special Considerations, 276 22 Animal Research Laboratory 277 22.1 Description, 277 22.2 Laboratory Layout, 279 22.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 292 22.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 296 22.5 Special Requirements, 297 23 Microelectronics and Cleanroom Laboratories 299 23.1 Description, 299 23.2 Laboratory Layout, 303 23.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, 307 23.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personnel Safety, 310 23.5 Special Requirements, 312 23.6 Renovations, 314 24 Printmaking Studio 315 24.1 Description, 315 24.2 Print Studio Layout, 317 24.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 318 24.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 321 PART III LABORATORY SUPPORT SERVICES 325 25 Imaging and Photographic Facilities 327 25.1 Introduction, 327 25.2 Photographic And Imaging Facility Layouts, 331 25.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 334 25.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 336 25.5 Special Requirements, 337 26 Support Shops 339 26.1 Description, 339 26.2 Layout, 340 26.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 344 26.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 346 26.5 Special Requirements, 346 27 Hazardous Chemical, Radioactive, and Biological Waste-Handling Rooms 348 27.1 Guiding Concepts, 348 27.2 Layout, 351 27.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 356 27.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 358 27.5 Special Requirements, 358 28 Laboratory Storerooms 360 28.1 Description, 360 28.2 Layout, 363 28.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 366 28.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 367 28.5 Special Requirements, 368 PART IV HVAC SYSTEMS 369 29 HVAC Systems 371 29.1 Description, 371 29.2 Air-Conditioning Systems, 371 29.3 HVAC System Design and Description, 376 29.4 System Descriptions and Strategies, 377 29.5 Humidification and Dehumidification, 386 29.6 Space Pressure Control, 389 29.7 Automatic Control System, 391 30 Fans 392 30.1 Fan Terminology, 392 30.2 Exhaust Fan Specifications, 393 30.3 Atmospheric Dispersion, 394 30.4 Fan Laws, 394 30.5 Fan Selection, 395 30.6 Fan Performance, 396 31 Air Cleaning 397 31.1 Introduction, 397 31.2 Air-Cleaning Equipment for Laboratories, 398 32 Laboratory Hoods and Other Exhaust Air Contaminant-Capture Facilities and Equipment 404 32.1 Introduction, 404 32.2 Conventional Bypass Chemical Fume Hoods, 405 32.3 Auxiliary Air Chemical Fume Hoods, 409 32.4 Perchloric Acid Fume Hoods, 411 32.5 Hoods for Work With Radioactive Materials, 411 32.6 Variable Air-Volume Hoods, 411 32.7 High-Performance Hoods, 412 32.8 Gloveboxes, 412 32.9 Biological Safety Cabinets, 413 32.10 Capture (Exterior) Hoods, 416 32.11 Ductless Hoods, 416 32.12 Performance Tests, 420 33 Exhaust Air Ducts and Accessories 422 33.1 Introduction, 422 33.2 Exhust Duct Considerations, 423 33.3 Exhust System Classification, 424 33.4 Duct Accessories, 424 34 Variable-Air-Volume Systems 426 34.1 Introduction, 426 34.2 VAV Hoods, 427 34.3 Good Design Practices for Vav Systems, 428 34.4 Variable-Volume Exhaust System Operational Concept, 428 34.5 VAV System Controls and Components, 429 34.6 VAV System Fan Controls and Components, 431 34.7 VAV System Duct Configurations, 434 35 Energy Conservation 436 35.1 Introduction, 436 35.2 Recent Trends, 437 35.3 Exhaust Ventilation for Contamination Control, 440 35.4 Lighting, 448 35.5 Thermal Insulation, 448 35.6 Humidity Control, 448 35.7 Evaporative Cooling, 449 35.8 Water Conservation, 449 35.9 Efficient Operating Strategies, 449 PART V ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES 451 36 Project Execution and Bidding Procedures 453 36.1 Guiding Concepts, 453 36.2 Implementation, 454 36.3 Bid Form, 456 36.4 Contract, 457 36.5 Change Orders, 457 36.6 Construction Inspections, 458 36.7 Punch List, 458 36.8 Additional Testing and Acceptance, 458 36.9 Beneficial Occupancy, 459 36.10 Final Acceptance and Commissioning, 459 37 Commissioning and Final Acceptance Criteria 460 37.1 Guiding Concepts, 460 37.2 Design, Construction, and Preoccupancy Checklists, 460 37.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 462 37.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 466 37.5 Project Commissioning, 467 38 Sustainable Laboratory Design 471 38.1 Introduction, 471 38.2 Laboratory Construction Materials, 472 38.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, 474 38.4 Loss Prevention, Industrial Hygiene, and Personal Safety, 477 38.5 Miscellaneous Services, 477 38.6 Lighting, 478 38.7 Submetering, 479 38.8 Additional Background Material, 479 PART VI APPENDIXES 481 Appendix A Emergency Showers 483 Appendix B Emergency Eyewash Units 485 Appendix C Signs 486 Appendix D Stack Design 489 Appendix E Matrix of Building Consideration for Specific Laboratory Types 495 REFERENCES 500 INDEX 509

About the Author

LOUIS J. DiBERARDINIS, BS, MS, CIH, CSP, is the Directorof Environment, Health, and Safety at MIT. He is a visitinglecturer at Harvard University School of Public Health and AdjunctProfessor at the University of Massachusetts Lowell in theDepartment of the Work Environment. He received his BS in chemicalengineering from Northeastern University and an MS in industrialhygiene from Harvard University. JANET S. BAUM, BS, MArch, AiA, currently teachespart-time at Harvard University School of Public Health and at boththe Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design and theInstitute of Public Health, Washington University in St. Louis. Sheearned her BS in architectural sciences at Washington University inSt. Louis and her master of architecture at Harvard UniversityGraduate School of Design. The late MELVIN W. FIRST, ScD, CIH, PE, was a researcherand professor of environmental health Engineering at the HarvardSchool of Public Health for almost sixty years and was activelyinvolved in research until a week before his death. GARI T. GATWOOD, BSME, CSP (retired), is a consultant insafety engineering. He has forty years of safety experience inmissile defense, commercial chemicals, laboratories, and universityprograms. He holds a degree in mechanical engineering from theMissouri School of Mines and Metallurgy in Rolla, Missouri. Anand K. Seth, BS, MS, PE, CEM, CPE, is currently anEngineering Principal in Cannon Design, an internationalarchitectural/engineering firm. Seth worked at MassachusettsGeneral Hospital as director of engineering and at HarvardUniversity. He holds a master of science in mechanical engineeringfrom the University of Maine and has done postgraduate work atother universities.

Reviews

In summary, this edition of the book addresses a broadspectrum of end users including administrators, researchers,instructors, engineers, and environment health officers. The bookis a useful comprehensive reference for academic institutions, butperhaps not for individual instructors. (Journal ofChemical Education, 1 January 2014)

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