Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes
Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering
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|Format: ||Hardcover, 852 pages|
|Other Information: ||black & white illustrations|
|Published In: ||United Kingdom, 05 November 2014|
This book provides an updated state-of-the-art review on new developments in alkali-activation. The main binder of concrete, Portland cement, represents almost 80% of the total CO2 emissions of concrete which are about 6 to 7% of the Planet's total CO2 emissions. This is particularly serious in the current context of climate change and it could get even worse because the demand for Portland cement is expected to increase by almost 200% by 2050 from 2010 levels, reaching 6000 million tons/year. Alkali-activated binders represent an alternative to Portland cement having higher durability and a lower CO2 footprint. * Reviews the chemistry, mix design, manufacture and properties of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders* Considers performance in adverse environmental conditions.* Offers equal emphasis on the science behind the technology and its use in civil engineering.
A comprehensive review of the state of the art in alkali-activated binders, an alternative to Portland cement with higher durability and a lower CO2 footprint.
Table of Contents
List of contributors Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering Foreword 1: Introduction to Handbook of Alkali-activated Cements, Mortars and ConcretesAbstract1.1 Brief overview on alkali-activated cement-based binders (AACB)1.2 Potential contributions of AACB for sustainable development and eco-efficient construction1.3 Outline of the book Part One: Chemistry, mix design and manufacture of alkali-activated, cement-based concrete binders2: An overview of the chemistry of alkali-activated cement-based bindersAbstract2.1 Introduction: alkaline cements2.2 Alkaline activation of high-calcium systems: (Na,K)2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O2.3 Alkaline activation of low-calcium systems: (N,K)2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O2.4 Alkaline activation of hybrid cements2.5 Future trends3: Crucial insights on the mix design of alkali-activated cement-based bindersAbstract3.1 Introduction3.2 Cementitious materials3.3 Alkaline activators: choosing the best activator for each solid precursor3.4 Conclusions and future trends4: Reuse of urban and industrial waste glass as a novel activator for alkali-activated slag cement pastes: a case studyAbstract4.1 Introduction4.2 Chemistry and structural characteristics of glasses4.3 Waste glass solubility trials in highly alkaline media4.4 Formation of sodium silicate solution from waste glasses dissolution: study by 29Si NMR4.5 Use of waste glasses as an activator in the preparation of alkali-activated slag cement pastes4.6 ConclusionsAcknowledgements Part Two: The properties of alkali-activated cement, mortar and concrete binders5: Setting, segregation and bleeding of alkali-activated cement, mortar and concrete bindersAbstract5.1 Introduction5.2 Setting times of cementitious materials and alkali-activated binder systems5.3 Bleeding phenomena in concrete5.4 Segregation and cohesion in concrete5.5 Future trends5.6 Sources of further information and advice6: Rheology parameters of alkali-activated geopolymeric concrete bindersAbstract6.1 Introduction: main forming techniques6.2 Rheology of suspensions6.3 Rheometry6.4 Examples of rheological behaviors of geopolymers6.5 Future trends7: Mechanical strength and Young's modulus of alkali-activated cement-based bindersAbstract7.1 Introduction7.2 Types of prime materials - solid precursors7.3 Compressive and flexural strength of alkali-activated binders7.4 Tensile strength of alkali-activated binders7.5 Young's modulus of alkali-activated binders7.6 Fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binders7.7 Conclusions and future trends7.8 Sources of further information and advice8: Prediction of the compressive strength of alkali-activated geopolymeric concrete binders by neuro-fuzzy modeling: a case studysAbstract8.1 Introduction8.2 Data collection to predict the compressive strength of geopolymer binders by neuro-fuzzy approach8.3 Fuzzy logic: basic concepts and rules8.4 Results and discussion of the use of neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict the compressive strength of geopolymer binders8.5 Conclusions9: Analysing the relation between pore structure and permeability of alkali-activated concrete bindersAbstract9.1 Introduction9.2 Alkali-activated metakaolin (AAM) binders9.3 Alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) binders9.4 Alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders9.5 Conclusions and future trends10: Assessing the shrinkage and creep of alkali-activated concrete bindersAbstract10.1 Introduction10.2 Shrinkage and creep in concrete10.3 Shrinkage in alkali-activated concrete10.4 Creep in alkali-activated concrete10.5 Factors affecting shrinkage and creep10.6 Laboratory work and standard tests10.7 Methods of predicting shrinkage and creep10.8 Future trends Part Three: Durability of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders11: The frost resistance of alkali-activated cement-based bindersAbstract11.1 Introduction11.2 Frost in Portland cement concrete11.3 Frost in alkali-activated binders - general trends and remarks11.4 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali-activated slag (AAS) systems11.5 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali-activated alumino-silicate systems11.6 Detailed review of frost resistance of mixed systems11.7 Future trends11.8 Sources of further information12: The resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders to carbonationAbstract12.1 Introduction12.2 Testing methods used for determining carbonation resistance12.3 Factors controlling carbonation of cementitious materials12.4 Carbonation of alkali-activated materials12.5 Remarks about accelerated carbonation testing of alkali-activated materials13: The corrosion behaviour of reinforced steel embedded in alkali-activated mortarAbstract13.1 Introduction13.2 Corrosion of reinforced alkali-activated concretes13.3 Corrosion resistance in alkali-activated mortars13.4 New palliative methods to prevent reinforced concrete corrosion: use of stainless steel reinforcements13.5 New palliative methods to prevent reinforced concrete corrosion: use of corrosion inhibitors13.6 Future trends13.7 Sources of further information and adviceAcknowledgements14: The resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders to chemical attackAbstract14.1 Introduction14.2 Resistance to sodium and magnesium sulphate attack14.3 Resistance to acid attack14.4 Decalcification resistance14.5 Resistance to alkali attack14.6 Conclusions14.7 Sources of further information and advice15: Resistance to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) of alkali-activated cement-based bindersAbstract15.1 Introduction15.2 Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in Portland cement concrete15.3 Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in alkali-activated binders - general remarks15.4 AAR in alkali-activated slag (AAS)15.5 AAR in alkali-activated fly ash and metakaolin15.6 Future trends15.7 Sources of further information16: The fire resistance of alkali-activated cement-basedconcrete bindersAbstract16.1 Introduction16.2 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of pure alkali-activated systems (Na2O/K2O)-SiO2-Al2O316.3 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of calcium containing alkali-activated systems CaO-(Na2O/K2O)-SiO2-Al2O316.4 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of iron containing alkali-activated systems FeO-(Na2O/K2O)-SiO2-Al2O316.5 Fire resistant alkali-activated composites16.6 Fire resistant alkali-activated cements, concretes and binders16.7 Passive fire protection for underground constructions16.8 Future trends16.9 Sources of further information17: Methods to control efflorescence in alkali-activated cement-based materialsAbstract17.1 An introduction to efflorescence17.2 Efflorescence formation in alkali-activated binders17.3 Efflorescence formation control in alkali-activated binders17.4 Conclusions Part Four: Applications of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders18: Reuse of aluminosilicate industrial waste materials in the production of alkali-activated concrete bindersAbstract18.1 Introduction18.2 Bottom ashes18.3 Slags (other than blast furnace slags (BFS)) and other wastes from metallurgy18.4 Mining wastes18.5 Glass and ceramic wastes18.6 Construction and demolition wastes (CDW)18.7 Wastes from agro-industry18.8 Wastes from chemical and petrochemical industries18.9 Future trends18.10 Sources of further information and adviceAcknowledgement19: Reuse of recycled aggregate in the production of alkali-activated concreteAbstract19.1 Introduction19.2 A brief discussion on recycled aggregates19.3 Properties of alkali-activated recycled aggregate concrete19.4 Other alkali-activated recycled aggregate concrete19.5 Future trends19.6 Sources of further information and advice20: Use of alkali-activated concrete binders for toxic waste immobilizationAbstract20.1 Introduction and EU environmental regulations20.2 Definition of waste20.3 Overview of inertization techniques20.4 Cold inertization techniques: geopolymers for inertization of heavy metals20.5 Cold inertization techniques: geopolymers for inertization of anions20.6 Immobilization of complex solid waste20.7 Immobilization of complex liquid waste20.8 Conclusions21: The development of alkali-activated mixtures for soil stabilisationAbstract21.1 Introduction21.2 Basic mechanisms of chemical soil stabilisation21.3 Chemical stabilisation techniques21.4 Soil suitability for chemical treatment21.5 Traditional binder materials21.6 Alkali-activated waste products as environmentally sustainable alternatives21.7 Financial costs of traditional versus alkali-activated waste binders21.8 Recent research into the engineering performance of alkali-activated binders for soil stabilisation21.9 Recent research into the mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of alkali-activated binders for soil stabilisation21.10 Conclusions and future trends22: Alkali-activated cements for protective coating of OPC concreteAbstract22.1 Introduction22.2 Basic properties of alkali-activated metakaolin (AAM) coating22.3 Durability/stability of AAM coating22.4 On-site trials of AAM coatings22.5 The potential of developing other alkali-activated materials for OPC concrete coating22.6 Conclusions and future trends23: Performance of alkali-activated mortars for the repair and strengthening of OPC concreteAbstract23.1 Introduction23.2 Concrete patch repair23.3 Strengthening concrete structures using fibre sheets23.4 Conclusions and future trends24: The properties and durability of alkali-activated masonry unitsAbstract24.1 Introduction24.2 Alkali activation of industrial wastes to produce masonry units24.3 Physical properties of alkali-activated masonry units24.4 Mechanical properties of alkali-activated masonry units24.5 Durability of alkali-activated masonry units24.6 Summary and future trends Part Five: Life cycle assessment (LCA) and innovative applications of alkali-activated cements and concretes25: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of alkali-activated cements and concretesAbstract25.1 Introduction25.2 Literature review25.3 Development of a unified method to compare alkali-activated binders with cementitious materials25.4 Discussion: implications for the life cycle assessment (lCa) methodology25.5 Future trends in alkali-activated mixtures:considerations on global warming potential (GWP)25.6 Conclusion25.7 Sources of further information and advice26: Alkali-activated concrete binders as inorganic thermal insulator materialsAbstract26.1 Introduction26.2 The various ways to prepare foam-based alkali-activated binders26.3 Investigation of the foam network26.4 Microstructures and porosity27: Alkali-activated cements for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyesAbstractAcknowledgements27.1 Introduction27.2 Experimental technique27.3 Microstructure and hydration mechanism of alkali-activated granulated blast furnace slag (AGBFS) cements27.4 Alkali-activated slag-based cementitious material (ASCM) coupled with Fe2O3 for photocatalytic degradation of Congo red (CR) dye27.5 Alkali-activated steel slag-based (ASS) cement for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye27.6 Alkali-activated fly ash-based (AFA) cement for photocatalytic degradation of MB dye27.7 Conclusions27.8 Future trends27.9 Sources of further information and advice28: Innovative applications of inorganic polymers (geopolymers)Abstract28.1 Introduction28.2 Techniques for functionalising inorganic polymers28.3 Inorganic polymers with electronic properties28.4 Photoactive composites with oxide nanoparticles28.5 Inorganic polymers with biological functionality28.6 Inorganic polymers as dye carrying media28.7 Inorganic polymers as novel chromatography media28.8 Inorganic polymers as ceramic precursors28.9 Inorganic polymers with luminescent functionality28.10 Inorganic polymers as novel catalysts28.11 Inorganic polymers as hydrogen storage media28.12 Inorganic polymers containing aligned nanopores28.13 Inorganic polymers reinforced with organic fibres28.14 Future trends28.15 Sources of further information and advice Index
About the Author
Fernando Pacheco-Torgal is a Senior Researcher in the C-TAC Research Centre at the University of Minho, Portugal. He has authored almost 300 publications, including 96 in ISI Web of Science-WoS and 92 on Scopus. Having received 798 citations in WoS (h-index=15) and 1125 citations on Scopus (h-index=18). He has a SCI Platinum h=30 the highest in the field of civil in Portugal. He has also been the Lead Editor of 14 international books, with more than 500 contributors from 52 countries in the five continents. Joao Labrincha is Associate Professor in the Materials and Ceramics Engineering Department of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, and member of the CICECO research unit. He has registered 22 patent applications, and has published over 170 papers.
"This handbook is a great impetus for an accelerated commercialization of an eco-friendly alternative binder technology with more in-depth understanding of its strength, weakness, opportunities and threats...will go a long way to fulfil the essential requirements of transferring the technology from the laboratory to the field." Dr Anjan K. Chatterjee, Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and Chairman of Conmat Technologies Pvt Ltd., Kolkata (From the foreword)
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