A comprehensive review of the state of the art in alkali-activated binders, an alternative to Portland cement with higher durability and a lower CO2 footprint.
List of contributors Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering Foreword 1: Introduction to Handbook of Alkali-activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes Abstract 1.1 Brief overview on alkali-activated cement-based binders (AACB) 1.2 Potential contributions of AACB for sustainable development and eco-efficient construction 1.3 Outline of the book Part One: Chemistry, mix design and manufacture of alkali-activated, cement-based concrete binders 2: An overview of the chemistry of alkali-activated cement-based binders Abstract 2.1 Introduction: alkaline cements 2.2 Alkaline activation of high-calcium systems: (Na,K)2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O 2.3 Alkaline activation of low-calcium systems: (N,K)2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O 2.4 Alkaline activation of hybrid cements 2.5 Future trends 3: Crucial insights on the mix design of alkali-activated cement-based binders Abstract 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Cementitious materials 3.3 Alkaline activators: choosing the best activator for each solid precursor 3.4 Conclusions and future trends 4: Reuse of urban and industrial waste glass as a novel activator for alkali-activated slag cement pastes: a case study Abstract 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Chemistry and structural characteristics of glasses 4.3 Waste glass solubility trials in highly alkaline media 4.4 Formation of sodium silicate solution from waste glasses dissolution: study by 29Si NMR 4.5 Use of waste glasses as an activator in the preparation of alkali-activated slag cement pastes 4.6 Conclusions Acknowledgements Part Two: The properties of alkali-activated cement, mortar and concrete binders 5: Setting, segregation and bleeding of alkali-activated cement, mortar and concrete binders Abstract 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Setting times of cementitious materials and alkali-activated binder systems 5.3 Bleeding phenomena in concrete 5.4 Segregation and cohesion in concrete 5.5 Future trends 5.6 Sources of further information and advice 6: Rheology parameters of alkali-activated geopolymeric concrete binders Abstract 6.1 Introduction: main forming techniques 6.2 Rheology of suspensions 6.3 Rheometry 6.4 Examples of rheological behaviors of geopolymers 6.5 Future trends 7: Mechanical strength and Young's modulus of alkali-activated cement-based binders Abstract 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Types of prime materials - solid precursors 7.3 Compressive and flexural strength of alkali-activated binders 7.4 Tensile strength of alkali-activated binders 7.5 Young's modulus of alkali-activated binders 7.6 Fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binders 7.7 Conclusions and future trends 7.8 Sources of further information and advice 8: Prediction of the compressive strength of alkali-activated geopolymeric concrete binders by neuro-fuzzy modeling: a case studys Abstract 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Data collection to predict the compressive strength of geopolymer binders by neuro-fuzzy approach 8.3 Fuzzy logic: basic concepts and rules 8.4 Results and discussion of the use of neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict the compressive strength of geopolymer binders 8.5 Conclusions 9: Analysing the relation between pore structure and permeability of alkali-activated concrete binders Abstract 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Alkali-activated metakaolin (AAM) binders 9.3 Alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) binders 9.4 Alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders 9.5 Conclusions and future trends 10: Assessing the shrinkage and creep of alkali-activated concrete binders Abstract 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Shrinkage and creep in concrete 10.3 Shrinkage in alkali-activated concrete 10.4 Creep in alkali-activated concrete 10.5 Factors affecting shrinkage and creep 10.6 Laboratory work and standard tests 10.7 Methods of predicting shrinkage and creep 10.8 Future trends Part Three: Durability of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders 11: The frost resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders Abstract 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Frost in Portland cement concrete 11.3 Frost in alkali-activated binders - general trends and remarks 11.4 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali-activated slag (AAS) systems 11.5 Detailed review of frost resistance of alkali-activated alumino-silicate systems 11.6 Detailed review of frost resistance of mixed systems 11.7 Future trends 11.8 Sources of further information 12: The resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders to carbonation Abstract 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Testing methods used for determining carbonation resistance 12.3 Factors controlling carbonation of cementitious materials 12.4 Carbonation of alkali-activated materials 12.5 Remarks about accelerated carbonation testing of alkali-activated materials 13: The corrosion behaviour of reinforced steel embedded in alkali-activated mortar Abstract 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Corrosion of reinforced alkali-activated concretes 13.3 Corrosion resistance in alkali-activated mortars 13.4 New palliative methods to prevent reinforced concrete corrosion: use of stainless steel reinforcements 13.5 New palliative methods to prevent reinforced concrete corrosion: use of corrosion inhibitors 13.6 Future trends 13.7 Sources of further information and advice Acknowledgements 14: The resistance of alkali-activated cement-based binders to chemical attack Abstract 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Resistance to sodium and magnesium sulphate attack 14.3 Resistance to acid attack 14.4 Decalcification resistance 14.5 Resistance to alkali attack 14.6 Conclusions 14.7 Sources of further information and advice 15: Resistance to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) of alkali-activated cement-based binders Abstract 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in Portland cement concrete 15.3 Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in alkali-activated binders - general remarks 15.4 AAR in alkali-activated slag (AAS) 15.5 AAR in alkali-activated fly ash and metakaolin 15.6 Future trends 15.7 Sources of further information 16: The fire resistance of alkali-activated cement-basedconcrete binders Abstract 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of pure alkali-activated systems (Na2O/K2O)-SiO2-Al2O3 16.3 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of calcium containing alkali-activated systems CaO-(Na2O/K2O)-SiO2-Al2O3 16.4 Theoretical analysis of the fire performance of iron containing alkali-activated systems FeO-(Na2O/K2O)-SiO2-Al2O3 16.5 Fire resistant alkali-activated composites 16.6 Fire resistant alkali-activated cements, concretes and binders 16.7 Passive fire protection for underground constructions 16.8 Future trends 16.9 Sources of further information 17: Methods to control efflorescence in alkali-activated cement-based materials Abstract 17.1 An introduction to efflorescence 17.2 Efflorescence formation in alkali-activated binders 17.3 Efflorescence formation control in alkali-activated binders 17.4 Conclusions Part Four: Applications of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders 18: Reuse of aluminosilicate industrial waste materials in the production of alkali-activated concrete binders Abstract 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Bottom ashes 18.3 Slags (other than blast furnace slags (BFS)) and other wastes from metallurgy 18.4 Mining wastes 18.5 Glass and ceramic wastes 18.6 Construction and demolition wastes (CDW) 18.7 Wastes from agro-industry 18.8 Wastes from chemical and petrochemical industries 18.9 Future trends 18.10 Sources of further information and advice Acknowledgement 19: Reuse of recycled aggregate in the production of alkali-activated concrete Abstract 19.1 Introduction 19.2 A brief discussion on recycled aggregates 19.3 Properties of alkali-activated recycled aggregate concrete 19.4 Other alkali-activated recycled aggregate concrete 19.5 Future trends 19.6 Sources of further information and advice 20: Use of alkali-activated concrete binders for toxic waste immobilization Abstract 20.1 Introduction and EU environmental regulations 20.2 Definition of waste 20.3 Overview of inertization techniques 20.4 Cold inertization techniques: geopolymers for inertization of heavy metals 20.5 Cold inertization techniques: geopolymers for inertization of anions 20.6 Immobilization of complex solid waste 20.7 Immobilization of complex liquid waste 20.8 Conclusions 21: The development of alkali-activated mixtures for soil stabilisation Abstract 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Basic mechanisms of chemical soil stabilisation 21.3 Chemical stabilisation techniques 21.4 Soil suitability for chemical treatment 21.5 Traditional binder materials 21.6 Alkali-activated waste products as environmentally sustainable alternatives 21.7 Financial costs of traditional versus alkali-activated waste binders 21.8 Recent research into the engineering performance of alkali-activated binders for soil stabilisation 21.9 Recent research into the mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of alkali-activated binders for soil stabilisation 21.10 Conclusions and future trends 22: Alkali-activated cements for protective coating of OPC concrete Abstract 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Basic properties of alkali-activated metakaolin (AAM) coating 22.3 Durability/stability of AAM coating 22.4 On-site trials of AAM coatings 22.5 The potential of developing other alkali-activated materials for OPC concrete coating 22.6 Conclusions and future trends 23: Performance of alkali-activated mortars for the repair and strengthening of OPC concrete Abstract 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Concrete patch repair 23.3 Strengthening concrete structures using fibre sheets 23.4 Conclusions and future trends 24: The properties and durability of alkali-activated masonry units Abstract 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Alkali activation of industrial wastes to produce masonry units 24.3 Physical properties of alkali-activated masonry units 24.4 Mechanical properties of alkali-activated masonry units 24.5 Durability of alkali-activated masonry units 24.6 Summary and future trends Part Five: Life cycle assessment (LCA) and innovative applications of alkali-activated cements and concretes 25: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of alkali-activated cements and concretes Abstract 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Literature review 25.3 Development of a unified method to compare alkali-activated binders with cementitious materials 25.4 Discussion: implications for the life cycle assessment (lCa) methodology 25.5 Future trends in alkali-activated mixtures:considerations on global warming potential (GWP) 25.6 Conclusion 25.7 Sources of further information and advice 26: Alkali-activated concrete binders as inorganic thermal insulator materials Abstract 26.1 Introduction 26.2 The various ways to prepare foam-based alkali-activated binders 26.3 Investigation of the foam network 26.4 Microstructures and porosity 27: Alkali-activated cements for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes Abstract Acknowledgements 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Experimental technique 27.3 Microstructure and hydration mechanism of alkali-activated granulated blast furnace slag (AGBFS) cements 27.4 Alkali-activated slag-based cementitious material (ASCM) coupled with Fe2O3 for photocatalytic degradation of Congo red (CR) dye 27.5 Alkali-activated steel slag-based (ASS) cement for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye 27.6 Alkali-activated fly ash-based (AFA) cement for photocatalytic degradation of MB dye 27.7 Conclusions 27.8 Future trends 27.9 Sources of further information and advice 28: Innovative applications of inorganic polymers (geopolymers) Abstract 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Techniques for functionalising inorganic polymers 28.3 Inorganic polymers with electronic properties 28.4 Photoactive composites with oxide nanoparticles 28.5 Inorganic polymers with biological functionality 28.6 Inorganic polymers as dye carrying media 28.7 Inorganic polymers as novel chromatography media 28.8 Inorganic polymers as ceramic precursors 28.9 Inorganic polymers with luminescent functionality 28.10 Inorganic polymers as novel catalysts 28.11 Inorganic polymers as hydrogen storage media 28.12 Inorganic polymers containing aligned nanopores 28.13 Inorganic polymers reinforced with organic fibres 28.14 Future trends 28.15 Sources of further information and advice Index
Fernando Pacheco-Torgal is a Senior Researcher in the C-TAC Research Centre at the University of Minho, Portugal. He has authored almost 300 publications, including 96 in ISI Web of Science-WoS and 92 on Scopus. Having received 798 citations in WoS (h-index=15) and 1125 citations on Scopus (h-index=18). He has a SCI Platinum h=30 the highest in the field of civil in Portugal. He has also been the Lead Editor of 14 international books, with more than 500 contributors from 52 countries in the five continents. Joao Labrincha is Associate Professor in the Materials and Ceramics Engineering Department of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, and member of the CICECO research unit. He has registered 22 patent applications, and has published over 170 papers.
"This handbook is a great impetus for an accelerated commercialization of an eco-friendly alternative binder technology with more in-depth understanding of its strength, weakness, opportunities and threats...will go a long way to fulfil the essential requirements of transferring the technology from the laboratory to the field." Dr Anjan K. Chatterjee, Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and Chairman of Conmat Technologies Pvt Ltd., Kolkata (From the foreword)