Contents: Preface. Part I: The Need to Address Priority Problems. R. Lesh, B. Lovitts, A.E. Kelly, Purposes and Assumption of This Book. A.E. Kelly, R. Lesh, Trends and Shifts in Research Methods. R. Lesh, B. Lovitts, Research Agendas: Identifying Priority Problems and Developing Useful Theoretical Perspectives. T.A. Romberg, A. Collins, The Impact of Standards-Based Reform on Methods of Research in Schools. J. Confrey, Improving Research and Systemic Reform Towards Equity and Quality. Part II: Reflecting on Instruments and Methods. R. Lesh, D. Clarke, Formulating Operational Definitions of Desired Outcomes of Instruction in Mathematics and Science Education. J.P. Mestre, Progress in Research: The Interplay Among Theory, Research Questions, and Measurement Techniques. H.F. Cline, E.B. Mandinach, The Corruption of a Research Design: A Case Study of a Curriculum Innovation Project. Part III: Teaching Experiments. R. Lesh, A. Kelly, Multitiered Teaching Experiments. J. Confrey, A. Lachance, Transformative Teaching Experiments Through Conjecture-Driven Research Design. L.P. Steffe, P.W. Thompson, Teaching Experiment Methodology: Underlying Principles and Essential Elements. P. Cobb, Conducting Teaching Experiments in Collaboration With Teachers. M.A. Simon, Research on the Development of Mathematics Teachers: The Teacher Development Experiment. Part IV: Classroom-Based Research. D.L. Ball, Working on the Inside: Using One's Own Practice as a Site for Studying Teaching and Learning. H.M. Doerr, P.P. Tinto, Paradigms for Teacher-Centered Classroom-Based Research. A. Feldman, J. Minstrell, Action Research as a Research Methodology for the Study of the Teaching and Learning of Science. J.N. Moschkovich, M.E. Brenner, Integrating a Naturalistic Paradigm Into Research on Mathematics and Science Cognition and Learning. K. Tobin, Interpretive Research in Science Education. Part V: Clinical Methods. G.A. Goldin, A Scientific Perspective on Structured, Task-Based Interviews in Mathematics Education Research. J. Clement, Analysis of Clinical Interviews: Foundations and Model Viability. R. Lesh, M. Hoover, B. Hole, A. Kelly, T. Post, Principles for Developing Thought-Revealing Activities for Students and Teachers. R. Hall, Videorecording as Theory. R. Lesh, R. Lehrer, Iterative Refinement Cycles for Videotape Analyses of Conceptual Change. J. Roschelle, Choosing and Using Video Equipment for Data Collection. Part VI: Curriculum Design as Research. M.T. Battista, D.H. Clements, Mathematics Curriculum Development as a Scientific Endeavor. D. Clements, M.T. Battista, Designing Effective Software. J. Roschelle, N. Jackiw, Technology Design as Educational Research: Interweaving Imagination, Inquiry, and Impact. D. Dennis, The Role of Historical Studies in Mathematics and Science Educational Research. Part VII: Toward Assessment Design. K.K. Tatsuoka, G.M. Boodoo, Subgroup Differences on the GRE Quantitative Test: Based on the Underlying Cognitive Processes and Knowledge. S.M.A. Cooper, Cautions and Considerations: Thoughts on the Implementation and Evaluation of Innovation in Science Education. W.M. Stroup, U. Wilensky, Assessing Learning as Emergent Phenomena: Moving Constructivist Statistics Beyond the Bell Curve. L. Liebovitch, A. Todorov, M. Wood, K. Ellenbogen, When Using the Mean Is Meaningless: Examples From Probability Theory and Cardiology.