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Handbook of Tropical Residual Soils Engineering

Residual soils are found in many parts of the world. In tropical areas, residual soil layers are often extensive and may continue downwards for hundreds of meters before unweathered rock is reached. Since most foundations, excavations and embankments will therefore be built on or in such soil, and as residual soils are often used as construction materials, it is vital that the properties and peculiarities of tropical residual soils are well understood. The Handbook of Tropical Residual Soil Engineering is intended as a complete reference source and manual for every engineer working on or interested in soil and foundation engineering in tropical areas. Almost all aspects of tropical residual soils are treated, including a range of engineering applications. A dedicated part of the book is focused on region and country specific sections, including typical characteristics, soil conditions and practical cases. Ultimately, the final pages present tables and charts with typical data. This unique handbook will constitute an invaluable reference and should be a standard work in the library of any engineer involved in geological, foundation, and construction engineering work in tropical residual soil.
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 Aim and scope 1.2 Soils 1.3 Residual soils 1.4 Geographical occurrence of residual soils 1.5 Climate, classification systems and regions 1.6 Distribution of tropical residual soils 1.7 Engineering peculiarities of tropical residual soils References 2 Formation and classification of tropical residual soils 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Residual soils 2.2.1 Origin and general features of residual soils 2.2.2 Formation of residual soils 2.3 Formation of tropical residual soils 2.4 Characteristics of tropical residual soils 2.4.1 Development of a weathered profile 2.4.2 Chemical alteration and composition of the weathered profile 2.5 Pedogenetic classification of tropical residual soils 2.6 Definition and classification of tropical residual soils in civil engineering practice 2.6.1 Definitions of residual soils 2.6.2 Pertinent aspects of classifications of tropical residual soils for engineering practice 2.7 Examples of residual soils over different rock types 2.7.1 Profiles over igneous rocks 2.7.2 Profiles over sedimentary rocks 2.7.3 Profiles over metamorphic rocks 2.8 Conclusions References 3 Sampling and testing of tropical residual soils 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Sampling 3.3 Laboratory testing 3.4 In-situ tests 3.5 Summary and conclusions References 4 The behaviour of unsaturated soil 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Suction 4.2.1 Components of suction 4.2.2 Axis translation 4.2.3 The suction scale 4.2.4 Limiting suctions 4.2.5 Suction measurement 4.3 Water retention behaviour 4.4 Shear behaviour 4.4.1 Stress state variables 4.4.2 The extended Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria 4.5 Volume change 4.5.1 Shrinkage 4.5.2 Swelling 4.5.3 Combining changes in volume and water content 4.5.4 Collapse 4.6 Permeability 4.6.1 Water permeability (hydraulic conductivity) 4.6.2 Air permeability (air conductivity) References 5 Volume change of tropical residual soils 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Swelling and shrinkage 5.3 Collapsible residual soils References 6 Shear strength model for tropical residual soil 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Development of soil shear strength models 6.3 Laboratory measurement of shear strength using triaxial apparatus 6.4 Conclusions References 7 Slopes 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Geological factors of slope behaviour 7.3 Geology and mode of slope failure 7.4 Landslide classification 7.5 Landslide triggering mechanisms 7.6 Stability analyses 7.7 Remedial measures for soil and rock slopes References 8 Foundations: Shallow and deep foundations, unsaturated conditions, heave and collapse, monitoring and proof testing 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Direct (shallow) foundations 8.2.1 Solutions to foundations on residual soils - factors that affect the concept 8.2.2 Particular conditions in residual soils 8.2.3 Main demands for the guarantee of structural limit state conditions 8.3 Foundations on unsaturated soils 8.3.1 Shallow foundations on collapsible soils 8.3.2 Deep foundations on collapsible soils 8.3.3 Mitigation measures 8.3.4 Recent research and developments for dealing with collapsible soils 8.3.5 Shallow foundations on expansive soils 8.3.6 Characterisation by swell strains 8.3.7 Types of foundation that are used in expansive soils 8.3.8 Mitigation and preventive measures 8.3.9 Case histories 8.4 Indirect (deep) foundations 8.4.1 General concepts 8.4.2 Pile design References Standards, government and official publications Bibliography 9 Residual soils of Hong Kong 9.1 General descriptions of decomposed rocks in Hong Kong 9.2 In-situ test sites and sampling locations 9.3 Sampling methods and preparation procedures 9.4 Stress-dependent soil-water characteristic curves (SDSWCC) 9.5 In-situ permeability function 9.6 Small strain shear stiffness 9.7 Shear strength of unsaturated saprolites 9.8 Summary References 10 Residual soils of India 10.1 Introduction 10.2 The Archaean group 10.3 Climate 10.4 Distribution of residual soils 10.5 Physico-chemical properties 10.6 Geotechnical engineering data References 11 Residual soils of Southeast Asia 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Residual soils of Malaysia 11.2.1 Engineering applications and problems 11.3 Residual soils of Thailand 11.3.1 Engineering applications and problems 11.4 Residual soils of Singapore 11.4.1 Engineering applications and problems References

About the Author

University of Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia University of Durham, UK

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