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Foreword by C. Tracy Orleans. Tables and Figures. Preface. The Editors. The Contributors. PART ONE: HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR: THE FOUNDATIONS. One: The Scope of Health Behavior and Health Education (The Editors). Key Points. The Changing Context of Health Behavior. Health Education and Health Behavior in Context. Settings and Audiences for Health Education. Progress in Health Promotion and Health Behavior Research. Summary. Two: Theory, Research, and Practice in Health Behavior and Health Education (The Editors). Key Points. Theory, Research, and Practice: Interrelations. What Is Theory?. Paradigms for Theory and Research in Health Promotion and Education. Trends in Use of Health Behavior Theories and Models. Fitting a Theory or Theories to Research and Practice. Selection of Theories for This Book. Limitations of This Book. Summary. PART TWO: MODELS OF INDIVIDUAL HEALTH BEHAVIOR (BARBARA K. RIMER). Three: The Health Belief Model (Victoria L. Champion and Celette Sugg Skinner). Key Points. Origins of the Model. Description of HBM and Key Constructs. Evidence for the Model's Performance. Measurement of HBM Constructs. Applications of the HBM to Mammography and AIDS-Related Behaviors. Comparison of HBM to Other Theories. Challenges in Future HBM Research. Summary. Four: Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Integrated Behavioral Model (Daniel E. Monta~NOo and Danuta Kasprzyk). Key Points. Origins and Historical Development. Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior. An Integrated Behavioral Model. Elicitation. Application of IBM to HIV Prevention in Zimbabwe. Summary. Five: The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change (James O. Prochaska, Colleen A. Redding, and Kerry E. Evers). Key Points. Core Constructs. Applications of the Transtheoretical Model. Multiple-Behavior Change Programs. Limitations of the Model. Future Research. Summary. Six: The Precaution Adoption Process Model (Neil D. Weinstein, Peter M. Sandman, and Susan J. Blalock). Key Points. How Stage Theories Address Explaining and Changing Behavior. The Precaution Adoption Process Model. Using the PAPM to Develop and Evaluate Behavior Change Interventions. How Stage Theories Can Be Tested. An Example Using Matched and Mismatched Treatments. Review of Research Using the PAPM. Criteria for Applying Stage-Based Interventions. Future Directions. Summary. Seven: Perspectives on Health Behavior Theories That Focus on Individuals (Noel T. Brewer and Barbara K. Rimer). Key Points. Why Theory Is Needed. How to Decide Which Theory to Use. A Closer Look at Individual-Level Theories. Commonalities and Differences Across the Theories. New Constructs and Theories. Summary. PART THREE: MODELS OF INTERPERSONAL HEALTH BEHAVIOR. Eight: How Individuals, Environments, and Health Behaviors Interact: Social Cognitive Theory (Alfred L. McAlister, Cheryl L. Perry, and Guy S. Parcel). Key Points. Concepts of SCT. Applications to Health Promotion. Case Studies. New Applications. Limitations in Research on New SCT Applications. Summary. Nine: Social Networks and Social Support (Catherine A. Heaney and Barbara A. Israel). Key Points. Definitions and Terminology. Background of the Concepts. Relationship of Social Networks and Social Support to Health. Empirical Evidence on the Influence of Social Relationships. Translating Theory and Research into Practice. Social Network and Social Support Interventions. Health Education and Health Behavior Applications. Future Directions for Research and Practice. Summary. Ten: Stress, Coping, and Health Behavior (Karen Glanz and Marc D. Schwartz). Key Points. Historical Concepts of Health, Stress, and Coping. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping: Overview, Key Constructs, and Empirical Support. Theoretical Extensions. Applications to Specific Health Behavior Research Areas. Research Gaps and Future Directions. Summary. Eleven: Key Interpersonal Functions and Health Outcomes: Lessons from Theory and Research on Clinician-Patient Communication (Richard L. Street Jr. and Ronald M. Epstein). Key Points. Communication Between Health Care Providers and Patients: Historical Perspective. Pathways Between Clinician-Patient Communication and Health Outcomes. Key Functions of Clinician-Patient Communication. Moderators of Communication-Outcome Relationships. Clinician-Patient Communication: Application in Health Education and Health Behavior. Directions for Future Research. Summary. Twelve: Perspectives on Models of Interpersonal Health Behavior (K. Viswanath). Key Points. Some Defining Characteristics of Interpersonal Interaction. Theories and Models at the Interpersonal Level. Summary and Future Directions. PART FOUR: COMMUNITY AND GROUP MODELS OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE (KAREN GLANZ). Thirteen: Improving Health Through Community Organization and Community Building (Meredith Minkler, Nina Wallerstein, and Nance Wilson). Key Points. Historical Perspective. The Concept of Community. Models of Community Organization. Concepts in Community Organization and Community-Building Practice. Community Capacity and Social Capital. Issue Selection, Participation, and Relevance. Measurement and Evaluation Issues. Application of Community Organization and Community Building. Community Organizing and Community Building with Youth: Challenges and Considerations. The Challenge of Community Organization Approaches. Summary. Fourteen: Diffusion of Innovations (Brian Oldenburg and Karen Glanz). Key Points. Development of the Field and Related Research Traditions. Key Concepts. Important Factors in the Diffusion Process. The Role of Settings and Organizations in Diffusion of Health Behavior Innovations. The Practice of Dissemination and Diffusion of Health Behavior Interventions. Applications. Limitations of the Model and Challenges for the Future. Summary. Fifteen: Mobilizing Organizations for Health Promotion: Theories of Organizational Change (Frances Dunn Butterfoss, Michelle C. Kegler, and Vincent T. Francisco). Key Points. Introduction to Theories of Organizational Change. Change Within Organizations. Organizational Development Theory. Change Across Organizations. Applications of Organizational Theory to Health Promotion. Future Research to Inform Organizational Change Theories. Summary. Sixteen: Communication Theory and Health Behavior Change: The Media Studies Framework (John R. Finnegan Jr. and K. Viswanath). Key Points. Organization of Communication Studies. Message Production and Media Effects. Major Models and Hypotheses at the Individual Level. Theories at the Macro Level. Planned Use of Media. Future Directions. Summary. Seventeen: Perspectives on Group, Organization, and Community Interventions (Michelle C. Kegler and Karen Glanz). Key Points. New Concepts and Strategies for Macro-Level Change. Multiple Levels of Influence and Action. Models for Change. Approaches to Defining Needs, Problems, and Aims. The Influence of Technology on Macro-Level Theory and Practice. Similarities Between Models. Research Issues. Summary. PART FIVE: USING THEORY IN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. Eighteen: Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to Apply Health Behavior Theories (Andrea Carson Gielen, Eileen M. McDonald, Lee R. Bone, and Tiffany L. Gary). Key Points. Overview of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. Issues to Consider in Using PRECEDE-PROCEED. Case Study: The SAFE Home Project. Case Study: Project Sugar 1. Summary. Nineteen: Social Marketing (J. Douglas Storey, Gary B. Saffitz, and Jose G. Rim~OAn). Key Points. Definition of Social Marketing. Basic Principles of Social Marketing. The Role of Social Marketing Within a Strategic Communication Framework. The Role of Theory and Research in Social Marketing. International and Domestic (U.S.) Social Marketing Experiences. Summary. Twenty: Ecological Models of Health Behavior (James F. Sallis, Neville Owen, and Edwin B. Fisher). Key Points. Background, History, and Principles of Ecological Models. Application of Ecological Models to Health Behavior. Critical Examination of Ecological Models of Health Behavior. Summary. Twenty-One: Evaluation of Theory-Based Interventions (Russell E. Glasgow and Laura A. Linnan). Key Points. Benefits and Challenges of Evaluating Theory-Based Interventions. Types of Evaluation. Phases of Research. Types of Validity. Intervention Contexts and Intermediate Outcomes. Evaluation Models. The RE-AIM Framework. Evaluation Methods and Analytical Strategies for Theory-Based Interventions. Cost Issues. Examples of Evaluating Theory-Based Interventions . Challenges to Conducting and Evaluating Theory-Based Health Behavior Research in Applied Settings. Summary. Twenty-Two: Perspectives on Using Theory: Past, Present, and Future (Karen Glanz and Barbara K. Rimer). Key Points. Cross-Cutting Propositions About Using Theory. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Planning Model. Social Marketing. Ecological Models. Evaluation of Theory-Based Health Behavior Interventions. Moving Forward. Glossary. Name Index. Subject Index.
Karen Glanz is professor and director of the Emory Prevention Research Center and Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Research Scholar in the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University. Barbara K. Rimer is dean and Alumni Distinguished Professor of Health Behavior and Health Education in the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. K. Viswanath is an associate professor of society, human development, and health in the School of Public Health at Harvard University.