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Heat Effects of Welding


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Scope and structuring of contents.- 1.2 Weldability analysis.- 1.3 Residual stresses.- 1.4 Welding residual stresses.- 1.5 Welding residual stress fields.- 1.6 Type examples.- 1.7 Welding deformations.- 1.8 References to related books.- 1.9 Presentation aspects.- 2 Welding temperature fields.- 2.1 Fundamentals.- 2.1.1 Welding heat sources.- Significance of welding temperature fields.- Types of welding heat sources.- Output of welding heat sources.- 2.1.2 Heat propagation laws.- Law of heat conduction.- Law of heat transfer by convection.- Law of heat transfer by radiation.- Field equation of heat conduction.- Initial and boundary conditions.- Thermal material characteristic values.- 2.1.3 Model simplifications relating to geometry and heat input.- Necessity for simplifications.- Simplifications of the geometry.- Spatial simplifications of the heat source.- Time simplifications of heat source.- User questions addressing welding temperature fields.- Numerical solution and comparison with experiments.- 2.2 Global temperature fields.- 2.2.1 Momentary stationary sources.- Momentary point source on the semi-infinite solid.- Momentary line source in the infinite plate.- Momentary area source in the infinite rod.- 2.2.2 Continuous stationary and moving sources.- Moving point source on the semi-infinite solid.- Moving line source in the infinite plate.- Moving area source in the infinite rod.- 2.2.3 Gaussian distribution sources.- Stationary and moving circular source on the semi-infinite solid.- Stationary and moving circular source in the infinite plate.- Stationary strip source in the infinite plate.- 2.2.4 Rapidly moving high-power sources.- Rapidly moving high-power source on the semi-infinite solid.- Rapidly moving high-power source in the infinite plate.- 2.2.5 Heat saturation and temperature equalization.- 2.2.6 Effect of finite dimensions.- 2.2.7 Finite element solution.- Fundamentals.- Ring element model.- Plate element models.- 2.3 Local heat effect on the fusion zone.- 2.3.1 Electric arc as a welding heat source.- Physical-technical fundamentals.- Heat balance and heat source density.- Heat conduction modelling of fusion welding.- Melting of the electrode.- Fusion of the base metal.- Interaction of melting-off and fusion.- Weld pool modelling.- Weld pool physics.- Welding arc modelling.- Hydrostatic surface tension modelling.- Hydrodynamic weld pool modelling.- Hydrostatic weld shape modelling.- Keyhole modelling.- 2.3.2 Flame as a welding heat source.- Physical-technical fundamentals.- Heat balance and heat flow density.- 2.3.3 Resistance heating of weld spots.- 2.3.4 Heat generation in friction welding.- 2.4 Local heat effect on the base metal.- 2.4.1 Microstructural transformation in the heat-affected zone.- Thermal cycle and microstructure.- Time-temperature transformation diagrams.- Evaluation of time-temperature transformation diagrams.- 2.4.2 Modelling of microstructural transformation.- 2.4.3 Cooling rate, cooling time and austenitizing time in single-pass welding.- Cooling rate in solids and thin plates.- Cooling rate in thick plates.- Cooling time in solids and plates.- Austenitizing time in solids and plates.- 2.4.4 Temperature cycles in multi-pass welding.- 2.5 Hydrogen diffusion.- 3 Welding residual stress and distortion.- 3.1 Fundamentals.- 3.1.1 Temperature field as the basis.- 3.1.2 Elastic thermal stress field.- 3.1.3 Elastic-plastic thermal stress field.- 3.1.4 Basic equations of thermomechanics.- 3.1.5 Thermomechanical material characteristic values.- 3.2 Finite element models.- 3.2.1 Intelligent solution.- 3.2.2 Rod element model.- 3.2.3 Ring element model.- 3.2.4 Membrane plate element model in the plate plane.- 3.2.5 Membrane plate element model in the cross-section.- 3.2.6 Solid element model.- 3.3 Shrinkage force and stress source models.- 3.3.1 Longitudinal shrinkage force model.- 3.3.2 Transverse shrinkage force model.- 3.3.3 Application to cylindrical and spherical shells.- 3.3.4 Residual stress source model.- 3.4 Overview of welding residual stresses.- 3.4.1 General statements.- 3.4.2 Weld-longitudinal residual stresses.- 3.4.3 Weld-transverse residual stresses.- 3.4.4 Residual stresses after spot-welding, cladding, and flame cutting.- 3.5 Welding distortion.- 3.5.1 Model simplifications.- 3.5.2 Transverse shrinkage and groove transverse off-set.- 3.5.3 Longitudinal and bending shrinkage.- 3.5.4 Angular shrinkage and twisting distortion.- 3.5.5 Warpage of thin-walled welded components.- 3.6 Measuring methods for residual stress and distortion.- 3.6.1 Significance of test and measurement.- 3.6.2 Strain and displacement measurement during welding.- 3.6.3 Destructive residual stress measurement.- Measurement of uniaxial welding residual stresses.- Measurement of biaxial welding residual stresses.- Measurement of triaxial welding residual stresses.- 3.6.4 Non-destructive residual stress measurement.- 3.6.5 Distortion measurement after welding.- 3.6.6 Similarity relations.- 4 Reduction of welding residual stresses and distortion.- 4.1 Necessities and kinds of measures.- 4.2 Design measures.- 4.3 Material measures.- 4.3.1 Starting points.- 4.3.2 Material characteristic values in the field equations.- 4.3.3 Traditional consideration of the influence of the material.- 4.3.4 Derivation of novel welding suitability indices.- 4.4 Manufacturing measures.- 4.4.1 Starting points.- 4.4.2 Measures prior to and during welding.- Overview.- General measures.- Weld-specific measures.- Thermal measures.- Mechanical measures.- Typical applications.- 4.4.3 Post-weld measures.- Overview.- Hot stress relieving (annealing for stress relief).- Hot stress relieving in practice and relevant codes.- Stress relaxation tests.- Microstructural change during hot stress relieving.- Equivalence of annealing temperature and annealing time.- Creep laws and creep theories relating to hot stress relieving.- Analysis examples and experimental results relating to hot stress relieving.- Cold stress relieving (cold stretching, flame and vibration stress relieving).- Rod element model for cold stretching.- Notch and crack mechanics of cold stretching.- Cold stretching in practice.- Flame and induction stress relieving.- Vibration stress relieving.- Hammering, rolling, spot compression and spot heating.- Hot, cold and flame straightening.- 5 Survey of strength effects of welding.- 5.1 Methodical and systematical points of view.- 5.2 Hot and cold cracks.- 5.3 Ductile fracture.- 5.4 Brittle fracture.- 5.5 Lamellar tearing type fracture.- 5.6 Creep fracture.- 5.7 Fatigue fracture.- 5.8 Geometrical instability.- 5.9 Corrosion and wear.- 5.10 Strength reduction during welding.

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