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The History and Geography of Human Genes
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Table of Contents

PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Concepts, Data, and Methods 3 1.1. Introduction 3 1.2. Genetic definitions 5 1.3. Techniques for detection of polymorphic markers 7 1.4. The evolution of gene frequencies 11 1.5. Classical attempts to distinguish human "races" 16 1.6. Scientific failure of the concept of human races 19 1.7. Identifying population units 20 1.8. Linguistic classification 22 1.9. Nature and sources of the data 24 1.10. Methods of analysis 25 1.11. Genetic distances 29 1.12. Phylogenetic tree analysis 30 1.13. Analysis of principal components (PCs) and derived methods 39 1.14. Geographic maps of gene frequencies 42 1.15. Synthetic maps 50 1.16. Isolation by distance 52 1.17. Admixtures, their estimation, and their effect on tree structure 54 CHAPTER 2: Genetic History of World Populations 60 2.1. Paleoanthropological background 60 2.2. Early quantitative phylogenetic studies 68 2.3. Analysis of classical markers in forty-two selected populations 73 2.4. Analysis of DNA data 83 2.5. Comparison with archaeological data 93 2.6. Comparison with linguistic classifications 96 2.7. Importance of expansions in human evolution 105 2.8. Extent of genetic variation by FST analysis 111 2.9. Genetic variation and geographic distance 121 2.10. Maps of single genes 125 2.11. Synthetic maps of the world 133 2.12. Homozygosity 138 2.13. Correlations with climate 142 2.14. Area and time of origin of major mutants, with special attention to hemoglobins 145 2.15. A brief summary of human evolution 154 CHAPTER 3: Africa 158 3.1. Geography and environment 158 3.2. Prehistory and history 159 3.3. Linguistics 164 3.4. Physical anthropology of modern Africans 167 3.5. Genetic analysis of the continent 169 3.6. Ethiopians, some of their neighbors, and North Africans 171 3.7. Khoisanids 174 3.8. Pygmies 177 3.9. Black sub-Saharan Africans. 180 3.10. Studies of single genes 185 3.11. Synthetic maps of Africa 189 3.12. Summary of the genetic history of Africa 192 CHAPTER 4: Asia 195 4.1. General introduction. geography, and environment 195 4.2. Prehistory and history in North Asia 197 4.3. Prehistory and history in Middle and Central Asia 198 4.4. Prehistory and history in East Asia 202 4.5. Prehistory and history in Southeast Asia 206 4.6. Prehistory and history in South Asia 208 4.7. Prehistory and history in West Asia 213 4.8. Linguistics 220 4.9. Physical anthropology 222 4.10. General genetic picture of Asia 225 4.11. Genetics of the Arctic 226 4.12. Genetics of East and Central Asia 229 4.13. Genetics of Southeast Asia 234 4.14. Genetics of South Asia (the Indian subcontinent) 238 4.15. Genetics of West Asia 242 4.16. Geographic maps of single genes 245 4.17. Synthetic maps of Asia 248 4.18. Summary of the genetic history of Asia 252 CHAPTER 5: Europe 255 5.1. Geography and ecology 255 5.2. Prehistory and history 256 5.3. Linguistics 263 5.4. Physical anthropology 266 5.5. The genetic picture 268 5.6. Major outliers: Lapps, Sardinians, Basques, and Icelanders 272 5.7. Italy 277 5.8. France 280 5.9. Iberian peninsula 285 5.10. Single-gene maps 287 5.11. Synthetic maps of Europe 290 5.12. Interactions of genetic, archaeological, and linguistic information 296 5.13. Summary of the genetic history of Europe 299 CHAPTER 6:. America 302 6.1. Geography and environment 302 6.2. Prehistory: occupation of America 303 6.3. Beginnings of agriculture 308 6.4. Development in North America 310 6.5. Development in Central America 312 6.6. Development in South America 313 6.7. Physical anthropology 316 6.8. Linguistics 317 6.9. Phylogenetic analysis of America 320 6.10. Phylogenetic analysis of individual tribes 326 6.11. Comparison of genetics with linguistics and geography 331 6.12. Geographic maps of single genes 333 6.13. Synthetic maps of America 337 6.14. Summary of the genetic history of America 340 CHAPTER 7: Australia, New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands 343 7.1. Geography and environment 343 7.2. Prehistory and history 344 7.3. Physical anthropology 349 7.4. Linguistics 349 7.5. Genetic population structure in Oceania 351 7.6. Population genetics and synthetic maps of Australia 353 7.7. Population genetics and synthetic maps of New Guinea 356 7.8. Population genetics of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia 362 7.9. Single-gene maps of Australia and New Guinea 367 7.10. Single-gene maps of the Pacific Islands 369 7.11. Summary of the genetic history of the Pacific 370 CHAPTER 8:. Epilogue 372 8.1. The multidisciplinary approach 372 8.2. The uses of genetics in human evolutionary history 373 8.3. Comparison of different methods of genetic analysis 374 8.4. The future of this research 377 8.5. Genetic and linguistic evolution 380 APPENDIX 1: Table of Allele Frequencies for Forty-two Populations Analyzed in Chapter 2 383 APPENDIX 2: Table of Allele Frequencies 393 APPENDIX 3: Reference List for Allele Frequencies 469 A PPENDIX B IBLIOGRAPHY 483 LITERATURE CITED 505 INDEX 525 MAPS 537 Table of Genetic Maps 539 Color Section and Genetic Maps follow Table of Genetic Maps

Promotional Information

The enormous breadth of its conclusions and its global scope will make this an extremely important book in the whole field of the humanities and in the scientific study of human populations. The authors are pioneering in their mapping of gene frequency distributions and in their historical interpretations of that patterning. -- Colin Renfrew, Jesus College, University of Cambridge

About the Author

L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza is Professor of Genetics at Stanford University, Paolo Menozzi is Professor of Ecology at the University of Parma, and Alberto Piazza is Professor of Human Genetics at the Medical School of Turin.

Reviews

Winner of the 1994 R.R. Hawkins Award, American Publishers Awards "The reconstruction of the human family tree--its branching order, its timing, and its geography--may be within our grasp... This research has great importance for the obvious and most joyously legitimate parochial reason--our intense fascination with ourselves and the details of our history."--Stephen Jay Gould, Natural History "This is the most comprehensive treatment of human genetic variations available ... An impressive display of synthesis and analysis."--Science "This long-awaited magnum opus is a major contribution to our knowledge of human genetic variation and its distribution on a global scale."--American Scientist

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