1. Introduction.- 2. The Emergence of Universities in the Middle Ages.- 3. Finnish Students at Medieval Universities.- 4. From the Reformation to the End of Swedish Rule - Laying the Foundations of a National University.- 5. The Founding of the Royal Academy of Turku.- 6. The Academy of Turku During the Last Century of Swedish Rule (1720-1809).- 7. The Age of Autonomy - the Role of Higher Education in the Building of the Nation.- 8. The Expansion of Higher Education into Practical-Utilitarian Disciplines.- 9. The First Decades of Independence - White Finland.- 10. The Development of Finland's Higher Education System After the Second World War - Towards a Welfare State.- 11. The Growth of Student Numbers and the Establishment of Polytechnics.- 12. Conclusions - The Institutional and Organisational Layers of Finnish Higher Education.