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History of Modern Art


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Foreword: A Short History of History of Modern ArtThe Art of LookingExperience and InterpretationA Book That Moves with the TimesPrefaceWhat's New: Chapter-by-chapter revisions1: The Origins of Modern ArtSOURCE: Theophile Gautier, preface to Mademoiselle de Maupin (1835)Making Art and Artists: The Role of the CriticA Marketplace for ArtCONTEXT: Modernity and Modernism the Modern ArtistWhat Does It Mean to Be an Artist?: From AcademicEmulation toward Romantic OriginalityMaking Sense of a Turbulent World: The Legacy of Neoclassicism and RomanticismTECHNIQUE: Printmaking TechniquesHistory PaintingLandscape Painting2: The Search for Truth: Early Photography, Realism, and ImpressionismNew Ways of Seeing: Photography and its InfluenceTECHNIQUE: Daguerreotype versus CalotypeOnly the Truth: RealismFranceEnglandSeizing the Moment: Impressionism and the Avant-GardeManet and WhistlerFrom Realism to ImpressionismNineteenth-Century Art in the United StatesEarly American Artists and the Hudson River SchoolNew Styles and Techniques in Later Nineteenth-SOURCE: Charles Baudelaire, from his "Salon of 1859"Century American Art3: Post-ImpressionismThe Poetic Science of Color: Seurat and the Neo-ImpressionistsForm and Nature: Paul CezanneEarly Career and Relation to ImpressionismLater CareerThe Triumph of Imagination: SymbolismReverie and Representation: Moreau, Puvis, and RedonThe Naive Art of Henri RousseauAn Art Reborn: Rodin and Sculpture at the Fin-de-SiecleEarly Career and The Gates of HellThe Burghers of Calais and Later CareerExploring New Possibilities: Claudel and RossoPrimitivism and the Avant-Garde: Gauguin and Van GoghGauguinSOURCE: Paul Gauguin, from Noa Noa (1893) Van GoghSOURCE: Vincent van Gogh, from a letter to his brother Theo van Gogh, 6 August 1888A New Generation of Prophets: The NabisVuillard and BonnardMontmartre: At Home with the Avant-Garde4: The Origins of Modern Architecture and DesignSafeguarding Culture: Revivalist Tendencies in Nineteenth-Century ArchitectureAmerican ClassicismEuropean Eclecticism"A Return to Simplicity": The Arts and Crafts Movement and Experimental ArchitectureExperiments in Synthesis: Modernism beside the HearthPalaces of Iron and Glass: The Influence of IndustrySOURCE: Joris-Karl Huysmans, from the review Le Fer, 1889"Form Follows Function": The Chicago School and theOrigins of the SkyscraperSOURCE: Louis Sullivan, "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered," 18965: Art Nouveau and the Beginnings of ExpressionismWith Beauty at the Reins of Industry: Aestheticism and Art NouveauNatural Forms for the Machine Age: The Art NouveauAestheticPainting and Graphic ArtSOURCE: Sigmund Freud, from The Interpretation of Dreams, 1899Architecture and DesignToward Expressionism: Late Nineteenth-Century Avant-Garde Painting beyond FranceScandinaviaNorthern and Central Europe6: The New Century: Experiments in Color and FormFauvism"Purity of Means" in Practice: Henri Matisse's Early CareerEarliest WorksMatisse's Fauve PeriodSOURCE: Charles Baudelaire, Invitation to the Voyage, 1857The Influence of African Art"Wild Beasts" Tamed: Derain, Vlaminck, and DufyReligious Art for a Modern Age: Georges RouaultThe Belle Epoque on Film: the Lumiere Brothers and LartigueCONTEXT: Early Motion PicturesModernism on a Grand Scale: Matisse's Art after FauvismForms of the Essential: Constantin Brancusi7: Expressionism in GermanyFrom Romanticism to Expressionism: Corinth and Modersohn-BeckerSOURCE: Paula Modersohn-Becker, Letters and journalSpanning the Divide between Romanticism and Expressionism: Die BruckeKirchnerTECHNIQUE: Woodcuts and Woodblock PrintsNoldeHeckel, Muller, Pechstein, and Schmidt-RottluffDie Brucke's CollapseThe Spiritual Dimension: Der Blaue ReiterKandinskyMunterWerefkinMarcMackeJawlenskyKleeFeiningerExpressionist SculptureSelf-Examination: Expressionism in AustriaSchieleKokoschkaCONTEXT: The German Empire8: CubismImmersed in Tradition: Picasso's Early CareerBarcelona and MadridBlue and Rose PeriodsCONTEXT: Women as Patrons of the Avant-GardeLes Demoiselles d'AvignonBeyond Fauvism: Braque's Early Career"Two Mountain Climbers Roped Together": Braque, Picasso, and the Development of Cubism"Analytic Cubism," 1909-11"Synthetic Cubism," 1912-14TECHNIQUE: CollageConstructed Spaces: Cubist SculptureBraque and PicassoArchipenkoDuchamp-VillonLipchitzLaurensAn Adaptable Idiom: Developments in Cubist Painting in ParisGrisGleizes and MetzingerLegerOther Agendas: Orphism and Other Experimental Art in Paris, 1910-14Duchamp9: Early Twentieth-Century ArchitectureModernism in Harmony with Nature: Frank LloydWrightEarly HousesThe Larkin BuildingMid-Career CrisisTemples for the Modern City: American Classicism 1900-15New Simplicity Versus Art Nouveau: Vienna Before World War ITradition and Innovation: The German Contribution to Modern ArchitectureBehrens and Industrial DesignCONTEXT: The Human Machine: Modern WorkspacesExpressionism in ArchitectureToward the International Style: The Netherlands and BelgiumBerlage and Van de VeldeNew Materials, New Visions: France in the EarlyTwentieth CenturyTECHNIQUE: Modern Materials10: European Responses to CubismFantasy Through Abstraction: Chagall and the Metaphysical SchoolChagallDe Chirico and the Metaphysical School"Running on Shrapnel": Futurism in ItalySOURCE: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, from The Founding and Manifesto of FuturismBallaBragagliaSeveriniCarraBoccioniSant'Elia"Our Vortex is Not Afraid:" Wyndham Lewis and VorticismCONTEXT: The Omega WorkshopsA World Ready for Change: The Avant-Garde in RussiaLarionov, Goncharova, and RayonismPopova and Cubo-FuturismMalevich and SuprematismEl Lissitzky's ProunsTECHNIQUE: AxonometryKandinsky in the Early Soviet PeriodUtopian Visions: Russian ConstructivismInnovations in SculptureTatlinRodchenkoStepanova and RozanovaPevsner, Gabo, and the Spread of Constructivism11: Picturing the Wasteland: Western Europe during World War ICONTEXT: The Art of Facial ProstheticsThe World Turned Upside Down: The Birth of DadaThe Cabaret Voltaire and Its LegacyArp"Her Plumbing and Her Bridges": Dada Comes to AmericaDuchamp's Early CareerSOURCE: Anonymous (Marcel Duchamp), "The Richard Mutt Case"Duchamp's Later CareerPicabiaMan Ray and the American Avant-Garde"Art is Dead": Dada in GermanyHausmann, Hoech, and HeartfieldSchwittersErnstIdealism and Disgust: The "New Objectivity" in GermanyGroszDixThe Photography of Sander and Renger-Patzsch BeckmannCONTEXT: Degenerate Art12: Art in France after World War IEloquent Figuration: Les MauditsModiglianiSoutineUtrilloDedication to Color: Matisse's Later CareerResponse to Cubism, 1914-16Renewal of Coloristic Idiom, 1917-c. 1930An Art of Essentials, c. 1930-54CONTEXT: Matisse in Merion, PennsylvaniaCelebrating the Good Life: Dufy's Later CareerEclectic Mastery: Picasso's Career after the WarParade and Theatrical ThemesCONTEXT: Diaghilev's Ballets RussesPostwar ClassicismCubism ContinuedSensuous Analysis: Braque's Later CareerAusterity and Elegance: Leger, Le Corbusier, and Ozenfant13: Clarity, Certainty, and Order: de Stijl and the Pursuit of Geometric AbstractionThe de Stijl IdeaSOURCE: De Stijl "Manifesto 1" (1918, published in de Stijl in 1922)Mondrian: Seeking the Spiritual Through the RationalEarly WorkNeoplasticismThe Break with de StijlVan Doesburg, de Stijl, and ElementarismDe Stijl Realized: Sculpture and ArchitectureVantongerlooVan 't Hoff and OudRietveldVan Eesteren14: Bauhaus and the Teaching of ModernismAudacious Lightness: The Architecture of GropiusThe Building as Entity: The BauhausSOURCE: Walter Gropius, from Bauhaus Manifesto (1919)Bauhaus DessauThe Vorkurs: Basis of the Bauhaus CurriculumMoholy-NagyJosef AlbersKleeKandinskyDie Werkmeistern: Craft Masters at the BauhausSchlemmerStoelzlBreuer and BayerTECHNIQUE: Industry into Art into Industry"The Core from which Everything Emanates": International Constructivism and the BauhausGaboPevsnerBaumeisterFrom Bauhaus Dessau to Bauhaus U.S.A.Mies van der RoheBauhaus U.S.A.15: Surrealism and Its DiscontentsCONTEXT: FetishismBreton and the Background to SurrealismThe Two Strands of SurrealismPolitical Context and MembershipCONTEXT: Trotsky and International Socialism between the Wars"Art is a Fruit": Arp's Later Career Hybrid Menageries: Ernst's Surrealist Techniques"Night, Music, and Stars": Miro and Organic-AbstractSurrealismMethodical Anarchy: Andre MassonEnigmatic Landscapes: Tanguy and DaliDaliSOURCE: Georges Bataille, from The Cruel Practice of Art (1949)Surrealism beyond France and Spain: Magritte, Delvaux, Bellmer, Matta, and LamMatta and LamWomen and Surrealism: Oppenheim, Cahun, Tanning, and CarringtonNever Quite "One of Ours": Picasso and SurrealismPainting and Graphic Art, mid-1920s to 1930sGuernica and Related WorksSculpture, late 1920s to 1940sPioneer of a New Iron Age: Julio GonzalezSurrealism's Sculptural Language: Giacometti's Early CareerSurrealist Sculpture in Britain: MooreBizarre Juxtapositions: Photography and SurrealismAtget's ParisMan Ray, Kertesz, Tabard, and the Manipulated ImageThe Development of Photojournalism: Brassai, Bravo, Model, and Cartier-BressonAn English Perspective: Brandt16: American Art Before World War IIAmerica Undisguised: The Eight and Social CriticismHenri, Sloan, Prendergast, and BellowsSOURCE: Walt Whitman, first stanza of Crossing Brooklyn Ferry (1856)Two Photographers: Riis and Hine BrooksA Rallying Place for Modernism: 291 Gallery and theStieglitz CircleStieglitz and SteichenTECHNIQUE: Style through Medium, Photogravure and Gelatin-Silver PrintsWeber, Hartley, Marin, and DoveO'KeeffeStraight Photography: Strand, Cunningham, and AdamsComing to America: The Armory ShowSharpening the Focus on Color and Form: Synchromism and PrecisionismSynchromismPrecisionismThe Harlem RenaissancePainting the American Scene: Regionalists and SocialRealistsBenton, Wood, HopperGrandma Moses and Horace PippinBishop, Shahn and BlumeCONTEXT: The Sacco and Vanzetti Trial Documents of an Era: American Photographers Between the WarsSocial Protest and Personal Pain: Mexican ArtistsRiveraOrozcoSiqueirosKahloTamayoModotti's Photography in MexicoThe Avant-Garde Advances: Toward American Abstract ArtExhibitions and Contact with EuropeDavisDiller and PereiraAvery and TackSculpture in America Between the WarsLachaise and NadelmanStorrs and RoszakCalder17: Abstract Expressionism and the New American SculptureCONTEXT: Artists and Cultural ActivismMondrian in New York: The Tempo of the MetropolisEntering a New Arena: Modes of Abstract ExpressionismSOURCE: Clement Greenberg, from Modernist Painting (first published in 1960)The Picture as Event: Experiments in Gestural PaintingHofmannGorkyWillem de KooningPollockSOURCE: Harold Rosenberg, from The American Action Painters (first published in 1952)KrasnerKlineTomlin and TobeyGustonElaine de Kooning and Grace HartiganComplex Simplicities: Color Field PaintingRothkoNewmanStillReinhardtGottliebMotherwellBaziotesDrawing in Steel: Constructed SculptureSmith and DehnerDi Suvero and ChamberlainTextures of the Surreal: Biomorphic Sculpture and AssemblageNoguchiBourgeoisCornellNevelsonExpressive Vision: Developments in American PhotographyCapa and MillerWhite, Siskind, Porter, and CallahanLevitt and DeCarava18: Postwar European ArtCONTEXT: Samuel Beckett and the Theatre of the AbsurdRevaluations and Violations: Figurative Art in FrancePicassoGiacomettiRichierBalthusDubuffetA Different Art: Abstraction in FranceFautrier, Van Velde, Hartung, and SoulagesWols, Mathieu, Riopelle, and Vieira da SilvaDe Stael"Pure Creation": Concrete ArtBill and LohsePostwar Juxtapositions: Figuration and Abstraction in Italy and SpainMorandiMarini and ManzuAfroFontanaSOURCE: Lucio Fontana, from The White Manifesto (1946)BurriTapies"Forget It and Start Again": The CoBrA Artists and HundertwasserJornAppelAlechinskyHundertwasserFigures in the Landscape: British Painting and SculptureBaconSutherlandFreudMooreHepworthMarvels of Daily Life: European PhotographersBischofSudekDoisneau19: Nouveau Realisme and Pop ArtCONTEXT: The Marshall Plan and the "Marilyn Monroe Doctrine""Extroversion is the Rule": Europe's New Realism KleinTinguely and Saint-PhalleArmanCesarRaysseChristo and Jeanne-ClaudeRotella, Manzoni and Broodthaers"This is Tomorrow": Pop Art in BritainHamilton and PaolozziBlake and KitajHockneySigns of the Times: Pop Art in the United StatesRauschenbergJohnsGetting Closer to Life: Happenings and EnvironmentsKaprow, Grooms, and Early HappeningsSegalOldenburg"Just Look at the Surface": The Imagery of Everyday LifeDineSamaras and ArtschwagerRiversLichtensteinWarholTECHNIQUE: ScreenprintingRosenquist, Wesselmann, and Indiana Lindner, Marisol, Sister CoritaPoetics of the "New Gomorrah": West Coast ArtistsThiebaudKienholzJessRuschaJimenezPersonal Documentaries: The Snapshot Aesthetic inAmerican Photography20: Playing by the Rules: Sixties AbstractionDrawing the Veil: Post Painterly AbstractionSOURCE: Clement Greenberg, from Post Painterly Abstraction (1964)Francis and MitchellFrankenthaler, Louis, and OlitskiPoonsAt an Oblique Angle: Diebenkorn and TwomblyForming the Unit: Hard-Edge PaintingSeeing Things: Op ArtVasarelyRiley and AnuszkiewiczNew Media Mobilized: Motion and LightMobiles and Kinetic ArtArtists Working with LightThe Limits of Modernism: MinimalismCaroStellaSmith, Judd, Bladen, and MorrisSOURCE: Tony Smith, from a 1966 Interview in ArtforumLeWitt, Andre, and SerraTECHNIQUE: Minimalist Materials: Cor-Ten SteelMinimalist PaintersComplex Unities: Photography and Minimalism21: Modernism in Architecture at Mid-Century"The Quiet Unbroken Wave": The Later Work of Wright and Le CorbusierWright During the 1930sLe CorbusierPurity and Proportion: The International Style in AmericaThe Influence of Gropius and Mies van der RoheSkyscrapersDomestic ArchitectureInternationalism Contextualized: Developments in Europe, Latin America, Asia, and AustraliaFinlandGreat BritainFranceGermany and ItalyLatin America, Australia, and JapanBreaking the Mold: Experimental HousingCONTEXT: Women in ArchitectureArenas for Innovation: Major Public ProjectsCultural Centers, Theaters, and Museums in AmericaUrban Planning and AirportsArchitecture and EngineeringTECHNIQUE: The Dymaxion House22: Conceptualism and Activist ArtArt as LanguageArt & Language, KosuthCONTEXT: SemioticsWeiner, Huebler, BarryKeeping Time: Baldessari, Kawara, DarbovenConceptual Art as Cultural CritiqueHaacke, AsherLawler, WilsonBurenExtended Arenas: Performance Art and VideoFluxusCONTEXT: The SituationistsBeuysThe Medium Is the Message: Early Video ArtPaikNaumanCampus' Video ArtWhen Art Becomes Artist: Body ArtSchneemann, WilkeMendietaAcconciBurdenGilbert and George, Anderson, and HornRadical Alternatives: Feminist ArtThe Feminist Arts ProgramErasing the Boundaries between Art and Life: LaterFeminist ArtKellyGuerrilla GirlsAntoniInvisible to Visible: Art and Racial PoliticsOBAC, Afri-COBRA, and SPARCRinggold and Folk TraditionsSocial and Political Critique: Hammons, ColescottThe Concept of Race: Piper23: Post-MinimalismBig Outdoors: Earthworks and Land ArtCONTEXT: EnvironmentalismMonumental WorksSOURCE: Robert Smithson, from "Cultural Confinement," originally published in Artforum (1972)Landscape as ExperienceAbakanowicz's Site-Specific SculptureVisible Statements: Monuments and Public SculptureMetaphors for Life: Process ArtArte Povera: Merz, KounellisBody of Evidence: Figurative ArtTraditional RealismPhotorealismHanson's Superrealist SculptureStylized NaturalismAnimated Surfaces: Pattern and DecorationFigure and Ambiguity: New Image ArtRothenberg and MoskowitzSultan and JenneyBorofsky and BartlettChicago Imagists: Nutt and PaschkeSteirNew Image Sculptors: Shapiro and Flanagan24: PostmodernismCONTEXT: PoststructuralismPostmodernism in Architecture"Complexity and Contradiction": The Reaction AgainstModernism Sets InSOURCE: Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour, from Learning from Las Vegas (1972)In Praise of "Messy Vitality": Postmodernist EclecticismVenturi, Rauch, and Scott Brown, and MooreHollein, Stern, and IsozakiIronic Grandeur: Postmodern Architecture and HistoryJohnsonStirling, Jahn, Armajani, and FosterPei and FreedAndo and PelliWhat Is a Building?: DeconstructionCONTEXT: Deconstruction versus DeconstructivismStructure as Metaphor: Architectural AbstractionsFlexible Spaces: Architecture and UrbanismPlater-Zyberk and DuanyKoolhaas and the OMAPostmodern Practices: Breaking Art HistoryAppropriation: Kruger, Levine, Prince, and ShermanKrugerHolzer, McCollum, and Tansey25: Painting through HistoryPrimal Passions: Neo-ExpressionismGerman Neo-Expressionism: Baselitz, Lupertz, Penck, and ImmendorffPolke, Richter, and KieferSOURCE: Gerhard Richter, from "Notes 1964-1965"Italian Neo-Expressionism: Clemente, Chia, and CucchiTECHNIQUE: Choosing MediaAmerican Neo-Expressionism: Schnabel, Salle, and FischlRegarding Representation: Painting and Photography in the 1980sLongoThe StarnsGilbert and GeorgeSearing Statements: Painting as Social ConscienceGolub and SperoCoe and ApplebroogIn the Empire of Signs: Neo-GeoNeo-Geo Abstraction: Halley and BlecknerThe Sum of Many Parts: Abstraction in the 1980sMurrayWintersTaaffeScullyWall of Fame: Graffiti and Cartoon ArtistsHaring, BasquiatWojnarowicz and WongRollins and KOSPainting Art HistoryCurrin, Yuskavage26: Contemporary Art and the Renegotiation of ModernismCONTEXT: National Endowment for the ArtsCONTEXT: International Art ExhibitionsCommodity ArtPostmodern Arenas: Installation ArtCoLab, Ahearn, OsorioKabakovViolaStrangely Familiar: British and American SculptureReprise and Reinterpretation: Art History as ArtMeeting Points: Exploring a Postmodern Abstraction27: Contemporary Art and GlobalizationCONTEXT: Modern Art Exhibitions and PostcolonialismLines That Define Us: Locating and Crossing BordersArt and the Expression of CultureGrowing into IdentityIdentity as PlaceSkin Deep: Identity and the BodyBody as SelfFilming the BodyThe Absent BodyThe Art of BiographyGlobalization and Arts InstitutionsInterventions in the Global MuseumDesigning a Global MuseumCONTEXT: Avant-tainmentCONTEXT: Pritzker Prize GlossaryIndex

About the Author

Elizabeth C. Mansfield is Associate Professor of art history at New York University. A scholar of modern European art and art historiography, her publications include books and articles on topics ranging from the origins of modernism to Picasso'sDemoiselles d'Avignon to the contemporary performance and body art of Orlan. A fellow at the National Humanities Center in 2008-09, she received the College Art Association's Charles Rufus Morey book award in 2008 for Too Beautiful to Picture: Zeus, Myth, and Mimesis. ( The late H.H. Arnason was a distinguished art historian, educator, and museum administrator who for many years was Vice President for Art Administration of the Solomon Guggenheim Museum in New York. He began his professional life in academia, teaching at Northwestern University, University of Chicago, and the University of Hawaii. From 1947 to 1961, Arnason was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Art at the University of Minnesota.


Since the first edition of Arnason's survey was published more than four decades ago, this has been considered the book on modern art. Newly revised and expanded by Mansfield (art history, New York Univ.; Too Beautiful To Picture: Zeuxis, Myth, and Mimesis), it should still be considered as such. The images are more numerous and of higher quality than ever before. Contemporary art is presented thematically rather than by decade, and various media are integrated. New consideration is given to globalization and the influence of modernism on non-Western and developing countries. Kenny Scharf is not covered in this edition, but the Hairy Who, Santiago Calatrava, and many others have been added. Further learning is fostered by the book's detailed bibliography, thorough index, and glossary. Verdict Libraries with funds and space for only one modern art book should buy this one; libraries with previous editions should keep them and shelve this update. An ideal primer on modern art.-Nancy J. Mactague, Aurora Univ. Lib., IL Copyright 2009 Reed Business Information.

For over four decades, H. H. Arnason's History of Modern Art has been an indispensible guide to a large and complex subject. Revised and expanded by co-author Elizabeth C. Mansfield, the sixth edition presents a comprehensive overview of modern art with fascinating new material on such topics as Postmodernism, globalization, and art institutions in the twenty-first century.Alan Wallach, William and Mary College Elizabeth Mansfield's revised History of Modern Art is as expansive as modernism itself. Beginning at 19th-century realism in France and ending with contemporary globalization, her survey embraces an impressive range of aesthetic developments across numerous media, I especially admire how she organizes modernism's great diversity under a clear interpretative framework maintained through all 27 chapters. Her book will prove an invaluable tool for educators.Andres Mario Zervigon, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Art History, Rutgers University. Bravo. Most thorough and useful revision of a textbook I have seen in more than four decades of teaching. Carl Goldstein, University of North Carolina at Greensboro I will definitely adopt this revised edition as it is tremendously improved in organization and structure.Elizabeth Mix (formerly Elizabeth Menon), Butler University The revisions to Arnason's History of Modern Art broaden the overall historical contexts of modernism and address more fully the implications of modernism in art and their relationship with the history of the modern Western world. The rewritten edition attempts to include more non-Western European and North American artists and is much more sophisticated in its handling of the historiography of art history.Damon Willick, Loyola Marymount University Exciting, more comprehensive and inclusive rather than exclusive! Mansfield's revisions make the text far more accessible. Barbara L. Miller, Western Washington University

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