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A History of Modern Europe


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Table of Contents

Preface: The Dilemmas and Rewards of a Concise Historical Overview xiv List of Maps xix List of Figures xx Acknowledgments xxii Introduction: What Is Europe? 1 ?Christendom? and Europe 2 Geographical Definitions 3 Europe?s Unusual Seas: The Mediterranean and Baltic 6 Europe?s Unusual Races 7 European Languages 8 Europe?s Religious Mixes 9 The Differing Rates of Growth in Europe?s Regions 10 Notes to the Reader 12 A Few Words about the Further Reading Sections 12 National and Thematic Overviews 13 Biographies 15 Historiography and Bibliography 15 Further Reading (to the Introduction) 16 Part I Romanticism and Revolt: The Seedtime of Modern Ideologies, 1815?40 17 1 The Legacy of the French Revolution 19 France?s Preeminence 19 The Changes Made by the Revolution 20 The Revolutionary Mystique 20 The Opening Stages of the Revolution 21 The Causes of the Revolution: Precedents 22 The Ambiguous Ideal of Equality 23 Civil Equality for Jews? 24 The Many Meanings of Fraternity 24 The Revolution: Progressive or Regressive? 25 Further Reading 28 2 The Congress of Vienna and Post-Napoleonic Europe: 1815?30 29 A Uniquely European Meeting 29 The Major Powers: Goals and Compromises 32 Napoleon Returns: The Hundred Days 34 The Issue of Poland 35 Other Territorial Settlements 37 Accomplishments of the Congress: Short-Term, Long-Term 39 The Repressive Years in Britain 40 Metternich?s Repressions 41 Further Reading 42 3 The Engines of Change 43 Conceptualizing Historical Change 43 The Industrial Revolution and Its Preconditions 44 The British Model of Industrialization 45 Industrialization in Other Countries 47 Resistance to Industrialization 50 Technological Innovation and Industrialization 50 The Implications of Industrial Change 53 Further Reading 54 4 The Seedtime of Ideology: A Century of ?Questions? 55 Europe?s Major ?Questions? and Its Belief in Progress 56 The Elusive Genesis and Evolution of Europe?s Isms 56 Conservatism, Liberalism, Socialism 57 Edmund Burke: The Conservative Tradition and Its Opponents 59 Feminism and the Woman Question 60 The Evolution of Liberal Theory and Practice: Radicalism and Utilitarianism 61 Classical Liberalism 62 Mill on Socialism and Feminism 63 Fourier?s Fantastic but ?Scientific? Vision of Socialism 65 The ?Practical? Socialist, Robert Owen 66 Saint-Simon, Prophet of Modernism 67 The Communist Tradition 68 Romanticism and Classicism 69 Further Reading 70 Part II From the 1820s to the Great Depression of the 1870s and 1880s 71 5 Liberal Struggles, Victories, Dilemmas, Defeats 75 The Revolution of 1830 in France 76 Unrest in the 1830s 77 Agitation to Repeal the Corn Laws 80 The Great Hunger in Ireland 81 The Darker Vision of Thomas Malthus 83 Again, Revolution in France 84 Reform in Britain: The Chartist Movement 85 Revolutions of 1848 and the End of Metternich?s Europe 85 The Republican Provisional Government and the ?National Workshops? 86 Rising Class Conflict and the ?June Days? 87 The National Question Outside France 87 Growing Divisions among the Revolutionaries 88 Further Reading 90 6 Nationalism and National Unification 92 Problems of Definition 92 Ideas of German Nationality 95 People, Language, and State: Herder and Hegel 96 Slavic Identities 97 Southern Europe: Latin Identities 98 New Power Relations in Europe: The Wars of Mid-century 99 The Unification of Italy 101 The Unification of Germany 103 Further Reading 105 7 Mid-century Consolidation, Modernization: Austria, Russia, France 106 The Habsburg Empire 106 The Russian Empire 110 France?s Second Empire 113 Further Reading 116 8 Optimism, Progress, Science: From the 1850s to 1871 117 The Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune 117 The Classic Age of British Liberalism 121 Britain?s Social Peace, Political Stability, and Economic Productivity 122 Liberalism, Population Growth, and Democracy 123 The Irish Question 124 Darwin and Darwinism 125 Further Reading 129 Part III From Depression to World War: The 1870s to 1914 131 9 The Depressed and Chastened 1870s and 1880s 133 The Spread of Marxism: Controversies about the Meaning of Marxism 133 The Development of Social Darwinism and Evolutionary Thinking 137 Russian Revolutionary Movements in the 1870s and 1880s 138 The Appearance of Modern Racial-Political Antisemitism 140 Antisemitism in Germany 143 The Weakness of Antisemitism in Italy and Britain 144 Antisemitism in France: Renan and the Scandals of the 1880s 144 Further Reading 146 10 Germany and Russia in the Belle Epoque: 1890?1914 147 A Rising Germany 148 Liberalism Challenged, Mass Politics, and the Second Industrial Revolution 148 The Influence of Friedrich Nietzsche 150 New Aspects of the German Question 151 The Evolution of German Social Democracy: The Revisionist Controversy 153 Russia under Nicholas II 155 The Appeals of Marxism in Russia and the Emergence of Leninism 156 The Russo-Japanese War, 1904?5 158 Revolution and Reaction in Russia, 1905?14 159 Further Reading 161 11 France and Britain in the Belle Epoque: 1890?1914 162 France in Turmoil 162 The Dreyfus Affair 164 French Socialism 167 Edwardian Britain 168 The Boer War 170 The Woman Question 173 Further Reading 175 12 The Origins of World War I 176 Growing International Anarchy, Hypernationalism, Polarization of Alliances 177 An Inevitable War? 178 The Role of Personality and Chance 179 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 180 From Euphoria to Stalemate Warfare 183 Further Reading 185 Part IV The European Civil War: 1914 ? 43 187 13 World War I: 1914 ?18 189 Stalemate Warfare in the West and Expansion in the East 189 1916: The Battles at Verdun and the Somme 192 1917: A Turning Point 193 Autumn 1917 to Autumn 1918: The Last Year of War and Germany?s Collapse 196 November 1918: The Balance Sheet of War 197 Further Reading 198 14 Revolution in Russia: 1917?21 199 A Proletarian Revolution? 199 The March (February) Revolution: Provisional Government and Soviets 200 Lenin?s Return: The Paradoxes of Bolshevik Theory and Practice 204 The Mechanics of the Bolshevik Seizure of Power 206 The Constituent Assembly 207 Civil War in Russia: The Red Terror 208 The Failure of Revolution in the West 210 What ?Really Happened? in Russia between November 1917 and March 1921? 212 Further Reading 212 15 The Paris Peace Settlement 214 The Settlements of 1815 and 1919 Compared; the Issue of German Guilt 214 Popular Pressures, ?New Diplomacy,? Russia?s Isolation 217 Wilson?s Role: The Fourteen Points 217 The Successor States and the Issue of Self-Determination 218 The Creation of New Nation-States: Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia 219 Dilemmas and Contradictions of Ethnic-Linguistic States 220 Minority Treaties 221 League of Nations Mandates 222 Further Reading 224 16 The Dilemmas of Liberal Democracy in the 1920s 225 Containing Germany: The Weakness of the League of Nations, 1919?29 226 The Dilemmas of American Leadership: Isolationism 227 Reactionary Trends and the Woman Question 228 The Negative Impact of the Versailles Treaty: Undermining German Democracy 230 The Evolution of Liberal Democracy in Germany 231 Developments in the Third Republic 232 The Brief Rule of the British Labour Party 234 The Stock-Market Crash, November 1929: The Beginning of the Great Depression 235 Further Reading 236 17 Stalinist Russia and International Communism 237 Stalin and Stalinism 237 The 1920s: Lingering Dilemmas and the Industrialization Debate 238 Stalin?s Victory in the Struggle for Power 240 Stalin and the Jewish Question in the Bolshevik Party 242 Collectivization and the Five-Year Plan 244 The Blood Purges 247 1939: The Balance Sheet: Paradoxes and Imponderables 249 Further Reading 250 18 The Rise of Fascism and Nazism: 1919?39 251 The Origins of Italian Fascism 252 Mussolini?s Assumption of Power 252 The Evolving Definition of Fascism: Initial Relations with Nazism 254 The Spread of Fascism Outside Italy, 1922?33 256 Nazism: The Basis of Its Appeal 258 The Nature of Hitler?s Antisemitism 259 Hitler in Power 261 A Moderate Solution to the Jewish Question? 265 Nazi and Soviet Rule: Comparing Evils 266 Further Reading 266 19 The Origins of World War II and the Holocaust: 1929?39 267 European Diplomacy, 1929?34 267 Hitler?s Retreats, the Stresa Front 269 The Great Turning Point, 1934?5: Comintern Policy and the Ethiopian War 270 The Popular Front in France, 1935?9 273 The Spanish Civil War, 1936?9 275 The Era of Appeasement, 1936?8 278 Evaluating Appeasement 281 Further Reading 282 20 World War II and the Holocaust: 1939?43 283 Appeasement from the East and the Outbreak of World War II 284 The Opening Stages of World War II 286 War in the West, 1940 289 The War against Judeo-Bolshevism 291 The Turning of the Tide 293 Victories at Stalingrad and the Kursk Salient 296 Further Reading 297 Part V Europe in Recovery and the Cold War: 1943?89 and Beyond 299 21 Victory, Peace, Punishment: 1943?6 303 The Problems and Paradoxes of Victory 303 Planning for Victory 306 Personal Diplomacy and Realpolitik 309 Winning the War: Myths and Realities 312 The Ambiguous Peace 313 The Holocaust?s Final Stages: Vengeance 314 The Nuremberg Trials 315 Dilemmas and Paradoxes of Punishment 319 Further Reading 321 22 Europe?s Nadir, the German Question, and the Origins of the Cold War: 1945?50 322 War-time Deaths, Military and Civilian 322 The Unresolved German Question: Germany?s Borders 323 Denazification 324 The Two Germanies, East and West 326 Schumacher and Adenauer 329 Social Democrats vs. Christian Democrats 330 Postwar Austria 331 The Origins and Nature of the Cold War 331 Further Reading 336 23 The Mystique of Revolution: Ideologies and Realities, 1945 to the 1960s 337 The Revolutionary Mystique in the Immediate Postwar Years 337 Democratic Socialism in Western Europe: Great Britain 339 Democratic Socialism in Western Europe: Scandinavia 341 The Revolutionary Mystique, the Cult of Personality, and ?Real? Socialism 343 Titoism and the New Show Trials 344 Stalin?s Death and Khrushchev?s ?De-Stalinization? 345 Revolts in Poland and Hungary, 1956 346 The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 348 East Germany and the Berlin Wall 349 Further Reading 350 24 The End of Imperialism, and European Recovery: 1948?68 352 European Exhaustion and the End of Empire 352 India and the Middle East 353 New Dimensions of the Jewish Question 355 ?French? Algeria 358 The Vagaries of Historical Memory: The Role of the Cold War 360 The Establishment of the Fourth Republic in France 361 Restoring Liberal Democracy in Italy 364 European Unification: The First Steps 366 De Gaulle?s Vision: The Fifth Republic 368 Further Reading 370 25 Europe in a New Generation 371 Communism with a Human Face: Czechoslovakia, 1968 372 Young Rebels in Western Europe 373 France: The ?Events of May? 375 Feminism in the New Generation 376 Further Reading 380 26 Detente, Ostpolitik, Glasnost: A New Europe 381 Shifting International Relationships: Frictions and Contretemps in the Soviet Union and United States 382 The Impact of the Oil Embargo of 1973: ?Stagflation? 383 The Restive Soviet Bloc in the 1970s and 1980s 384 Poland and Solidarity 385 West Germany?s Ostpolitik: Management of Modern Capitalism 386 Gorbachev and Glasnost, 1985?9 389 The Disintegration of Communist Rule 391 From Mystique (1989?90) to Politique (1991?2012) 391 From Soviet Union to Russian Federation 392 The Unification of Germany 393 The Breakup of Former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia 394 Western Europe: From Common Market to European Union 394 Further Reading 397 27 Europe in Two Centuries: An Epilogue and General Assessment 398 Europe?s Evolving Identity 400 European Liberties and Toleration 401 The Irish Question 402 The Woman Question 403 The Social Question and the Role of the State 403 The Eastern Question and the End of Empires 404 The German Question 404 Americanization, Globalization, and the European Model 406 The Jewish Question 407 The New Enemy: Islam 408 Environmentalism under Capitalism and Communism 409 The Demographic Question and European Xenophobia 410 The Sovereign Debt Crisis: The Dilemmas of the European Union 411 Further Reading 411 Index 413

About the Author

Albert S. Lindemann is Professor Emeritus at theUniversity of California, Santa Barbara. Among his publications are Antisemitism, A History (2010), Esau's Tears: ModernAnti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews (1997), The JewAccused: Three Anti-Semitic Affairs (1992), and A History ofEuropean Socialism (1983).


'Lindemann combines succinct accounts of political history with descriptions of intellectuals, culture, and social change, in an accessible and clear narrative of European history from the French Revolution to the present. Students will have in this single volume both a reliable resource and a compelling story about the changing conceptions of Europe in the modern world.' ?Peter C. Caldwell, Rice University

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