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History of Nordic Computing

The First Conference on the History of Nordic Computing (HiNC1) was organized in Trondheim, in June 2003. The HiNC1 event focused on the early years of computing, that is the years from the 1940s through the 1960s, although it formally extended to year 1985. In the preface of the proceedings of HiNC1, Janis Bubenko, Jr. , John Impagliazzo, and Arne Solvberg describe well the peculiarities of early Nordic c- puting [1]. While developing hardware was a necessity for the first professionals, quite soon the computer became an industrial product. Computer scientists, among others, grew increasingly interested in programming and application software. P- gress in these areas from the 1960s to the 1980s was experienced as astonishing. The developments during these decades were taken as the focus of HiNC2. During those decades computers arrived to every branch of large and medium-sized businesses and the users of the computer systems were no longer only computer s- cialists but also people with other main duties. Compared to the early years of comp- ing before 1960, where the number of computer projects and applications was small, capturing a holistic view of the history between the 1960s and the 1980s is conside- bly more difficult. The HiNC2 conference attempted to help in this endeavor.
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Table of Contents

Keynote Addresses.- Organizing the History of Computing.- Provisioning of Safe Train Control in Nordic Countries.- Computing and Computer Science in the Soviet Baltic Region.- Working with History and Its Usability.- What Do IT-People Know about the Nordic History of Computers and User Interfaces?.- Increasing the Museum Value of Information Technology Objects.- Preserving Our Digital Heritage: Experiences from the Pelikonepeijoonit Project.- From Computing Machines to IT.- Agentization in Computing: How to Ameliorate the Consequences of the History Today?.- Computer Fiction: "A Logic Named Joe".- Computer System Perspectives.- Annotations of First Generation Systems Development in Sweden.- Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems.- University Computing.- Scientific Computers at the Helsinki University of Technology during the Post Pioneering Stage.- Tool or Science? The History of Computing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.- The Development of University Computing in Sweden 1965-1985.- University Education.- Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing.- FORTRAN II - The First Computer Language Used at the University of Iceland.- Computers, Policies and Politics.- The Development of Computer Policies in Government, Political Parties, and Trade Unions in Norway 1961-1983.- Computer Industry as a National Task.- Information Systems and Software Engineering Research and Education in Oulu until the 1990s.- The Impact of Computer Science on the Development of Oulu ICT during 1985-1990.- Perspectives on Computer Applications.- Reflections of Computing Experiences in a Steel Factory in the Early 1960s.- Early Use of the Computer for Adjusting Triangulation in Iceland.- Data Processing with Unit Record Equipment in Iceland.- Publishing and Communication Applications.- Computerized Typesetting and Other New Applications in a Publishing House.- The Early Days of Computer Aided Newspaper Production Systems.- Modernizing Text and Data Networks in the Early 1980s.- Lexicography for IBM.- Software Histories.- The Development of Software Testing in Finland 1950-2000.- History of Computer Playing.- An Early Danish Computer Game.- Demoscene Platforms: A Case Study on the Adoption of Home Computers.- Panel Discussions.- IT Museums and Related Projects in the Nordic Countries.- University Education on Computers.

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