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How Baking Works
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PREFACE vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi 1 Introduction to Baking 1 Introduction 2 The Importance of Accuracy in the Bakeshop 2 Balances and Scales 3 Units of Measure 5 Weight and Volume Measurements 5 The Difference Between Weight Ounces and Fluid Ounces 7 The Difference Between Density and Thickness 8 Baker's Percentages 9 The Importance of Controlling Ingredient Temperatures 11 The Importance of Controlling Oven Temperatures 12 2 Heat Transfer 19 Introduction 20 Methods of Heat Transfer 20 3 Overview of the Baking Process 33 Introduction 34 Setting the Stage for Success 34 Stage I: Mixing 36 Stage II: Baking 38 Stage III: Cooling 44 4 Sensory Properties of Food 57 Introduction 58 Appearance 58 Flavor 61 Texture 68 5 Wheat Flour 79 Introduction 80 The Wheat Kernel 80 Makeup of Flour 82 Classifying Wheat 83 Particle Size 84 Flour and Dough Additives and Treatments 85 Commercial Grades of White Flours 89 Types of Patent Wheat Flours 91 Other Wheat Flours 94 Functions of Flour 96 Storage of Flours 98 6 Variety Grains and Flours 117 Introduction 118 Cereal Grains 118 Alternative Wheat Grains 122 Cereal-Free Grains and Flours 123 7 Gluten 135 Introduction 136 The Formation and Development of Gluten 136 Determining Gluten Requirements 138 Controlling Gluten Development 140 Dough Relaxation 150 8 Sugar and Other Sweeteners 163 Introduction 164 Sweeteners 164 Dry Crystalline Sugars 167 Syrups 173 Specialty Sweeteners 183 Functions of Sweeteners 186 Storage and Handling 191 9 Fats, Oils, and Emulsifiers 213 Introduction 214 Chemistry of Fats, Oils, and Emulsifi ers 214 Processing of Fats and Oils 217 Fats and Oils 221 Functions of Fats, Oils, and Emulsifi ers 233 Storage and Handling 238 10 Eggs and Egg Products 257 Introduction 258 The Makeup of an Egg 258 Commercial Classifi cation of Shell Eggs 261 Egg Products 263 Functions of Eggs 265 More on Coagulation: Basic Egg Custard 269 More on Aeration: Meringue 272 Storage and Handling 275 11 Leavening Agents 299 Introduction 300 The Process of Leavening 300 Leavening Gases 301 Yeast Fermentation 304 Chemical Leaveners 308 Storage and Handling 313 12 Thickening and Gelling Agents 323 Introduction 324 The Process of Thickening and Gelling 324 Gelatin 325 Vegetable Gums 328 Starches 330 Functions of Thickening and Gelling Agents 336 Storage and Handling 338 13 Milk and Milk Products 355 Introduction 356 Common Commercial Processes to Milk and Milk Products 356 Makeup of Milk 358 Milk Products 359 Functions of Milk and Milk Products 365 Storage and Handling 366 14 Nuts and Seeds 377 Introduction 378 Composition of Nuts, Kernels, and Seeds 378 Cost 379 Common Nuts, Kernels, and Seeds 380 Toasting Nuts 383 Storage and Handling 384 15 Cocoa and Chocolate Products 395 Introduction 396 Cocoa Beans 396 Common Cocoa and Chocolate Products 399 Handling Chocolate Products 412 Functions of Cocoa and Chocolate Products 414 Storage 417 16 Fruit and Fruit Products 427 Introduction 428 How Fruit is Purchased 428 Common Fruits 434 Fruit Ripening 437 Storage and Handling 439 17 Natural and Artificial Flavorings 453 Introduction 454 A Brief Review of Flavor 454 Flavor Profi les 454 Types of Flavorings 455 Evaluating New Flavorings 462 Storage and Handling 463 18 Baking for Health and Wellness 471 Introduction 472 Healthful Baking with the Customer in Mind 472 Guidelines for a Healthful Diet 473 Strategies for Healthful Baking 475 Food Allergies 481 Questions for Review 487 Exercises and Experiments 487 APPENDIX 499 BIBLIOGRAPHY 503 ILLUSTRATION CREDITS 504 INDEX 505

About the Author

Paula Figoni is a food scientist and associate professor at the International Baking and Pastry Institute in the College of Culinary Arts at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island. She has more than ten years of experience in product development and food science at The Pillsbury Company and Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc.

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