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How to Reach and Teach Children with Challenging Behavior (K-8)


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Table of Contents

About This Book vi About the Authors vii Acknowledgments ix Foreword by John W. Maag xxiii Preface xxv PART ONE A Positive, Proactive Approach to Behavior Management 1 A Case for Change 3 What?s Wrong with Kids Today? 4 What Happened to the Good Old Days? 4 I Didn?t Sign Up for This! 5 Students with Behavior Problems Should Just Be Suspended! 6 Punishment Works for Me! 7 What Can We Do? 8 Key Points to Remember 10 Discussion Questions 10 2 Positive Behavior Support and Functional Behavioral Assessment for Educators 12 What Exactly Is Positive Behavior Support? 13 A Three-Tiered Model 14 What Exactly Is Functional Behavioral Assessment? 15 Three Key Concepts of FBA 17 Common Functions of Problem Behavior 18 The Bottom Line on Functional Behavioral Assessment 22 Our Model of Intervention 22 Key Points to Remember 23 Discussion Questions 24 PART TWO Social Skills Instruction 3 Teaching Social Skills: The Basics 27 Traditional Approaches to Social Skills Instruction 27 A Three-Tiered Approach to Social Skills Instruction 28 Types of Social Skills Deficits 30 Self-Management: The Ultimate Goal 33 Key Points to Remember 34 Discussion Questions and Activities 35 4 Group Social Skills Instruction 36 Schoolwide and Classwide Social Skills Instruction 36 Small Group Social Skills Instruction 43 Choosing Curricula: A Case Study 43 Key Points to Remember 46 Discussion Questions and Activities 47 5 Individualized Social Skills Instruction 57 What Behaviors Should Be Focused on During Individualized Instruction? 57 Who Should Provide Individualized Instruction? 62 When Should Individualized Instruction Take Place? 62 How Should Individualized Instruction Be Delivered? 64 Commonly Overlooked Replacement Behaviors 65 Key Points to Remember 66 Discussion Questions and Activities 66 PART THREE Preventing Challenging Behavior 6 Preventing Challenging Behavior: The Basics 71 Targeting Setting Events and Triggering Antecedents 71 Identifying Sources of Frustration 72 Developing a Positive Relationship 73 Key Points to Remember 76 Discussion Questions 77 7 Assisting with Executive Functioning Tasks 78 Using Visual Supports 80 Assistance with Other Executive Functioning Skills 88 Key Points to Remember 93 Discussion Questions 94 8 Providing Appropriate and Engaging Academic Instruction 99 Differentiated Instruction 100 Scheduling 107 Maintaining Academic Engagement 112 Key Points to Remember 113 Discussion Questions and Activities 114 PART FOUR Reinforcing Desired Behavior 9 Reinforcing Desired Behavior: The Basics 117 Reinforcement Versus Rewards 117 Reinforcement Versus Bribery 119 How to Determine What Is Reinforcing for Students 120 Reinforcement Menus 121 Reinforcement Schedules: Determining How Much and How Often 123 Other Issues Surrounding Reinforcement 128 Key Points to Remember 130 Discussion Questions and Activities 131 10 Group Reinforcement Systems 132 Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingencies 132 Independent Group-Oriented Contingencies 136 The Importance of Tier 1 Reinforcement 138 Key Points to Remember 138 Discussion Questions and Activities 139 11 Individual Reinforcement Systems 140 Target Behavior Sheets 140 Dependent Group-Oriented Contingency 150 Level Systems 150 Token Boards 154 Contracts 155 Key Points to Remember 160 Discussion Questions and Activities 161 PART FIVE Using Undesirable Consequences 12 Using Undesirable Consequences: The Basics 165 Problems with Punishment 165 Natural and Logical Undesirable Consequences 167 The Three R?s of Logical Consequences 169 Punishment Versus Logical Consequences 171 Key Points to Remember 172 Discussion Questions and Activities 173 13 Common Logical Undesirable Consequences 174 Common Undesirable Consequences Continuum 175 The Importance of Problem Solving 178 Consequence Maps 179 Alternatives to Out-of-School Suspension 181 Key Points to Remember 188 Discussion Questions and Activities 189 PART SIX Putting It All Together 14 Conducting Effective and Efficient Functional Behavioral Assessments 193 Step One: Operationally Define the Problem and Replacement Behaviors 195 Step Two: Collect Information 195 Step Three: Develop Hypotheses About Why the Problem Behavior Is Occurring 199 Key Points to Remember 202 Discussion Questions and Activities 203 15 Designing and Implementing Effective and Efficient Behavior Intervention Plans 204 Step 4: Design a Behavior Intervention Plan Based on the Functional Behavioral Assessment 204 Step Five: Monitor and Adjust the Behavior Intervention Plan as Needed 205 Key Points to Remember 209 Discussion Question 209 16 Example Success Stories 210 Example 1: Joey 211 Example 2: Susan 218 Example 3: Taylor 228 Example 4: Malik 237 PART SEVEN What About Dangerous Behavior? Managing Crises 17 Intervening During the Escalation Cycle 247 Stage One 248 Stage Two 248 Stage Three 249 Stage Four 250 Stage Five 250 Stage Six 251 Key Points to Remember 253 Discussion Questions and Activities 254 18 Physical Restraint and Seclusion 255 Definitions 256 Historical Overview 256 Roots of the Problem 257 Current School Culture 257 What Can Educators Do? 260 Key Points to Remember 262 Discussion Questions and Activities 265 PART EIGHT Reproducible Tools 1 Positive-to-Negative Ratio Data Sheet 268 2 Break Pass 269 3 Countdown Strips 270 4 Chart Moves Frame 271 5 Peer Comparison Direct Observation Form 272 6 Consequence Map Template 273 7 If-Then Chart Template 274 8 Notes Template for Functional Behavioral Assessment 275 9 Functional Behavioral Assessment Summary Worksheet 276 10 Behavior Intervention Plan Worksheet 278 Glossary 281 Notes 287 References 293 Index 299

About the Author

KAYE L. OTTEN, Ph.D., has worked with children with behavior challenges for nearly twenty years as a classroom teacher, special educator, and behavior specialist. She is co-founder of Camp Encourage, a highly acclaimed overnight camp for children with autism spectrum disorders. JODIE L. TUTTLE, M.Ed., worked as a teacher of behaviorally challenged students for seventeen years. She currently works as a behavior specialist for preschool to high school-aged students.

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