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Human Cardiovascular Control

This new, comprehensive analysis of human cardiovascular control explains the control of pressure, vascular volume and blood flow during orthostatis and exercise. Analysis of the physical properties of the vascular system and their modification by mechanical, neural, and humoural factors is highlighted by novel graphical representations of basic concepts. Interactive effects of the vasculature on cardiac performance and factors that both control and limit oxygen transfer from lungs to cells are stressed. This complete account will prove invaluable for all medical students, physiologists and clinicians who wish to better understand the reflex and hormonal control of the human cardiovascular system.

Table of Contents

1. Passive Effects of Gravity; 1.1 History; 1.2 Hydrostatics and distribution of vascular transmural pressures; 1.3 Structural features that counteract gravitational "pooling"; 1.4 Mechanical adjustments to orthostasis; 2. Reflex Control During Orthostasis; 2.1 Brief history; 2.2 Circulatory responses to upright posture; 3. Neural-Humoral Adjustments to Orthostasis and Long-Term Control; 3.1 Neural control; 3.2 Humoral control; 4. Orthostatic Intolerance; 4.1 Normal individuals - Maldistribution of blood flow and blood volume; 4.2 Cardiovascular dysfunction; 4.3 Autonomic dysfunction; 5. Central Circulatory Adjustments to Dynamic Exercise; 5.1 Cardiovascular functional capacity - The concept; 5.2 Determinants of oxygen uptake - A brief review; 5.3 Regulation of the central circulation; 5.4 Adjustments to chronic high loads - Physical conditioning; 6. Control of Regional Blood Flow During Dynamic Exercise; 6.1 The splanchnic circulation; 6.2 The cutaneous circulation; 6.3 The renal circulation; 6.4 The cerebral circulation; 7. Control of Blood Flow to Active Muscles; 7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Control of blood flow to the heart; 7.3 Control of blood flow to respiratory muscles; 7.4 Control of blood flow to active skeletal muscle; 7.5 Peripheral vascular adjustments to physical conditioning; 8. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Isometric Contractions; 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 Blood flow to active muscle; 8.3 Central circulatory responses; 8.4 Peripheral vascular responses; 9. Limitations to Oxygen Uptake During Dynamic Exercise; 9.1 Limitations in the respiratory system; 9.2 Alveolar to arterial oxygen transfer; 9.3 Cardiac output as a limitation to oxygen uptake; 9.4 Transfer of ocygen from muscle capillary to mitochondria; 9.5 Limitations in skeletal muscle metabolism; 10.1 The problem of multiple, redundant control systems; 10.2 The major hypothesis to explain the responses to exercise; 10.3 Reflexes from active muscle - Chemoreflexes and mechanoreflexes; 10.4 Arterial baroreflexes; 10.5 Arterial and venous chemoreflexes; 11.1 Introduction; 11.2 Reflex control fo the cardiovascular system during isometric contractions; 11.3 Reflex control of the cardiovascular system during dynamic exercise; 12. Central Command, Muscle Chemoreflexes, and Arterial Baroreflexes - Integration; 12.1 Introduction; 12.2 Overall assessment of baroreflex regulation of arterial pressure during exercise; 12.3 Functional characteristics of the carotid sinus reflex during exercise; 12.4 Role of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in dynamic exercise; 12.5 Central command, muscle chemoreflexes and arterial baroreflexes: How do they operate together?

Product Details

About the Author

Loring B. Rowell is a Professor of Physiology and Biophysics and of Medicine (Cardiology) at the University of Washington School of Medicine. Dr. Rowell has published over 150 research papers, chapters, and review articles and has served on the editorial boeards of American Journal of Physiology, Circulation Research, and the Journal of Applied Physiology.


It is a delight to read the historical perspective provided for each of the major concepts discussed as that allows the reader to gain an understanding of the early contributions by a number of scientists to the concepts of cardiovascular control accepted today. Pertinent headings are presented throughout to ease digestion of the wealth of information provided. The illustrations are excellent, each elaborating concepts presented in the text. The author has provided mini summaries at the end of each section so that major points of importance are emphasized ... when finished with this volume I had the feeling that I had just received a thorough education in current concepts of blood pressure regulation. * J.A. Armour, M.D., Ph.d. *

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