Introduction Some Fundamental Concepts Part I: Institutions, Professions, and Ideas Approaching the Humanities through their History and Settings 1 A Bronze Age Scribal Culture: A Sociological Fable with an Implicit Moral Brain work and state formation The first intellectuals Scribal "humanism" 2 Classical Antiquity The rise of philosophy From the Sophists to Aristotle The epoch of Hellenization The impact of Christianity 3 The Middle Ages An era of renascences The Central Middle Ages (750 to 1050) The age of the Liberal Arts The rise of universities Aristotelianism The compromise The fourteenth century The post-medieval university 4 The Renaissance Renaissance and Humanism The wider context Humanist scholarship, pedantry, and the humanities A "Scientific Renaissance"? 5 The Early Modern Epoch and Classicism A shifting centre of gravity Courtly culture and classicism From scientific to philosophical revolution Scholarly and theoretical activity The problem of the Baroque 6 The Enlightenment The appearance of the "public sphere" The Enlightenment movement and its workers General themes and accomplishment Philosophy redefined Enlightenment and Revolution 7 The Nineteenth Century The institutionalization of unbounded scientific quest The German university reform and the humanities "Positive knowledge" Popularized science and popular science Academic and non-academic humanities 8 Toward the Present: Scientific Humanities 9 Bibliographic Essay Part II: Human Science and Human "Nature" 10 Cognitive Interests 11 Anthropologies 12 Theories of Created Man Determination by the body Environmental determination Sociologisms Weberian sociology: an example Structuralisms Functionalism 13 Humanity as Freedom The early Sartre: freedom as an absolute principle The elusive connection: freedom versus explanation 14 Toward Synthesis: Human Nature as Dialectic and History Dialectic Summing up Part III: The Art of Knowing An Essay on Epistemology in Practice 15 INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS Philosophy and the problem of knowledge 16 A Piagetian Introduction to the General Problem of Knowledge Schemes and dialectic The periods Supplementary observations The status of schemes and categories 17 The Nature and Demarcation of Scientific Knowledge A pseudo-historical introduction to some key concepts Empiricism and falsificationism Instrumentalism and truth Instruments or models? 18 A New Approach: Theories about the Scientific Process Popper and Lakatos: theories or research programmes? Theories falsified by theories The limits of formalization Kuhn: Paradigms and finger exercises The structure of scientific development Collective and individual knowledge Two kinds of"logic" Objections and further meditations 19 Truth, Causality, and Objectivity Truth Causality Objectivity, subjectivity, and particularism 20 The Role of Norm Logic and norms Explanations of morality Morality, language and social practice Knowledge, norms and ideology Value relativism and value nihilism Institutional imperatives Theoretical versus applied science Further norms, contradictions, contradictory interpretations 21 The Theory of Interdisciplinary and Applied Science Know-how and know-why The acquisition of theoretical knowledge The "Scientific-Technological Revolution" Interdisciplinarity Interdisciplinarity in basic research 22 Art and Cognition Knowing about art Knowing in art Fresh eyes Form versus contents Gelsted and Epicuros Art as thought experiments "Realism" Synthetical understanding and practical knowledge Abbreviations and Bibliography Name and Title Index Subject Index
Jens Hoyrup is Professor in the Section for Philosophy and Science Studies at Roskilde University in Denmark and the author of In Measure, Number, and Weight: Studies in Mathematics and Culture, also published by SUNY Press.
"The originality of the work is unquestionable. It is the product of deep learning and reflection, and it provides a fresh look at the development of and the prospects for the humanities." - Lewis Pyenson, coauthor of Servants of Nature: A History of Scientific Institutions, Enterprises, and Sensibilities "This is an extremely timely subject, especially as the value and importance of the humanities have recently come into question so prominently in the national press. It is a continuing concern of higher education, especially as colleges and universities face increasing pressure to stress professional and scientific education. The question of how the humanities should serve to prepare students and the public at large for the many challenges life provides is one reason this book is of considerable interest." - Joseph W. Dauben, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York