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Hydrometallurgy
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New or Used: $209.19
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The Importance of Metals 1 1.2 Mineral Deposition 2 1.3 Importance of Water 10 1.4 Aqueous Processing and Utilization of Metals 12 1.5 Overview of Fundamentals and Applications 17 References 19 Problems 20 2 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDROMETALLURGY 21 2.1 General Reactions 21 2.2 Chemical Potential 24 2.3 Free Energy and Standard Conditions 28 2.4 Free Energy and Nonstandard Activities 30 2.5 Equilibrium 31 2.6 Solubility Product 33 2.7 Relationships Amongst K, pK, pKa, and pH 34 2.8 Free Energy and Nonstandard Temperatures 36 2.9 Heat Generation due to Reactions 40 2.10 Free Energy and Nonstandard Pressures 41 2.11 Equilibrium Concentration Determinations 41 2.12 Activities and Activity Coefficients 42 2.13 Practical Equilibrium Problem Solving 47 2.14 Electrochemical Reaction Principles 52 2.15 Equilibrium and Electrochemical Equations 56 References 62 Problems 62 3 SPECIATION AND PHASE DIAGRAMS 65 3.1 Speciation (or Ion Distribution) Diagrams 65 3.2 Metal-Ligand Speciation Diagrams 69 3.3 Phase Stability Diagrams 72 Reference 83 Problems 83 4 RATE PROCESSES 84 4.1 Chemical Reaction Kinetics 84 4.2 Biochemical Reaction Kinetics 92 4.3 Electrochemical Reaction Kinetics 94 4.4 Mass Transport 106 4.5 Combined Mass Transport and Reaction Kinetics 114 4.6 Models for Reactions Involving Particles 117 4.7 Combined Mass Transport and Electrochemical Kinetics 128 4.8 Crystallization Kinetics 130 4.9 Overview of Surface Reaction Kinetics 131 References 134 Problems 135 5 METAL EXTRACTION 137 5.1 General Principles and Terminology 137 5.2 Bioleaching/Biooxidation 159 5.3 Precious Metal Leaching Applications 165 5.4 Extraction from Concentrates 171 References 179 Problems 181 6 SEPARATION OF DISSOLVED METALS 183 6.1 Liquid?Liquid or Solvent Extraction 184 6.2 Ion Exchange 200 6.3 Activated Carbon Adsorption 207 6.4 Ultrafiltration or Reverse Osmosis 211 6.5 Precipitation 212 References 214 Problems 215 7 METAL RECOVERY PROCESSES 218 7.1 Electrowinning 218 7.2 Electrorefining 229 7.3 Cementation or Contact Reduction 232 7.4 Recovery Using Dissolved Reducing Reagents 235 References 236 Problems 237 8 METAL UTILIZATION 239 8.1 Introduction 239 8.2 Batteries 240 8.3 Fuel Cells 245 8.4 Electroless Plating 247 8.5 Electrodeposited Coatings 249 8.6 Electroforming 251 8.7 Electrochemical Machining 251 8.8 Corrosion 253 References 262 Problems 263 9 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 264 9.1 Introduction 264 9.2 United States Environmental Policy Issues 266 9.3 Metal Removal and Remediation Issues 268 References 275 Problems 276 10 PROCESS DESIGN PRINCIPLES 277 10.1 Determination of Overall Objectives 278 10.2 Determination of Basic Flow Sheet Segments 278 10.3 Survey of Specific Segment Options 279 10.4 Overall Flow Sheet Synthesis 285 10.5 Procurement of Additional Information 287 10.6 Selected Industrial Flow Sheet Examples 289 References 310 Problem 311 11 GENERAL ENGINEERING ECONOMICS 312 11.1 The Effects of Time and Interest 312 11.2 Return on Investment (ROI) 322 11.3 Cost Estimation 323 11.4 Discounted Cash Flow Economic Analysis 325 11.7 Evaluating Financial Effects of Risk 337 References 344 Problems 345 12 GENERAL ENGINEERING STATISTICS 348 12.1 Uncertainty 348 12.2 Basic Statistical Terms and Concepts 353 12.3 The Normal Distribution 354 12.4 Probability and Confidence 355 12.5 Linear Regression and Correlation 373 12.6 Selecting Appropriate Statistical Functions 375 12.7 Hypothesis Testing 382 12.8 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 384 12.9 Factorial Design and Analysis of Experiments 387 12.10 The Taguchi Method 390 References 396 Problems 397 APPENDIX A ATOMIC WEIGHTS 399 APPENDIX B MISCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS 401 APPENDIX C CONVERSION FACTORS 402 APPENDIX D FREE ENERGY DATA 403 References 410 APPENDIX E LABORATORY CALCULATIONS 412 E.1 Background Information 412 E.2 Solution Preparation Principles 413 E.3 Solution Preparation Calculations 413 Problem 415 APPENDIX F SELECTED IONIC SPECIES DATA 416 APPENDIX G STANDARD HALF-CELL POTENTIALS 418 APPENDIX H GENERAL TERMINOLOGY 420 APPENDIX I COMMON SIEVE SIZES 423 APPENDIX J METALS AND MINERALS 424 INDEX 429

About the Author

MICHAEL L. FREE, PhD, is Professor of MetallurgicalEngineering at the University of Utah. Dr. Free's research shedsnew light on metal processing and interactions in aqueous media. Hehas been the principal investigator for fifty research projectsfunded by the Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research,National Science Foundation, and various private corporations. Dr.Free has also authored or coauthored more than 100publications.

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