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Indoor Wireless Communications: From Theory to Implementation

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Home » Books » Computers » Networking » Local Area Networks

Indoor Wireless Communications

From Theory to Implementation

By Alejandro Aragon-Zavala

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Format: Hardcover, 440 pages
Published In: United States, 01 September 2017
Indoor Wireless Communications: From Theory to Implementation provides an in-depth reference for design engineers, system planners and post graduate students interested in the vastly popular field of indoor wireless communications. It contains wireless applications and services for in-building scenarios and knowledge of key elements in the design and implementation of these systems. Technologies such as Wireless Local Area Networks, Bluetooth, ZigBee, Indoor Optical Communications, WiMAX, UMTS and GSM for indoor environments are fully explained and illustrated with examples. Antennas and propagation issues for in-building scenarios are also discussed, emphasizing models and antenna types specifically developed for indoor communications. An exhaustive survey on indoor wireless communication equipment is also presented, covering all available technologies including antennas, distribution systems, transceivers and base stations.

Table of Contents

Preface xix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Motivation 1 1.2 Evolution of Macro to Heterogeneous Networks 2 1.3 Challenges 3 1.4 Structure of the Book 4 References 5 2 Indoor Wireless Technologies 7 2.1 Cellular 7 2.1.1 The Cellular Concept 8 2.1.2 GSM 9 2.1.3 UMTS 11 2.1.4 HSPA 12 2.1.5 LTE 13 2.2 Wi-Fi 14 2.2.1 History 14 2.2.2 Medium Access Control (MAC) Sublayer 16 2.2.3 Physical Layer 17 2.2.4 Industry Bodies 17 2.2.4.1 Wi-Fi Alliance 17 2.2.4.2 IEEE 802.11 17 2.2.4.3 The Wireless Broadband Alliance 17 2.2.5 Wi-Fi Standards 18 2.2.5.1 IEEE 802.11-1997 18 2.2.5.2 IEEE 802.11a 18 2.2.5.3 IEEE 802.11b 18 2.2.5.4 IEEE 802.11g 18 2.2.5.5 IEEE 802.11-2007 18 2.2.5.6 IEEE 802.11n 18 2.2.6 Spectrum 19 2.2.6.1 2.4 GHz Band 19 2.2.6.2 5 GHz Band 20 2.2.7 Modulation Schemes Used in Wi-Fi 21 2.2.8 Multiple Access (MA) Techniques 21 2.2.8.1 Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 21 2.2.8.2 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) 22 2.2.8.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 23 2.2.9 Power Levels 24 2.2.10 Performance Indicators 25 2.2.11 Target Signal Levels and Link Budgets 25 2.2.12 Interference Challenges 29 2.2.13 Channel Planning 29 2.2.13.1 Single-Floor and Vertical Channel Planning 30 2.2.13.2 Multichannel Access Points 31 2.2.13.3 Automated Planning 31 2.2.14 Mobility Issues 31 2.2.14.1 Layer 2 Roam 32 2.2.14.2 Layer 3 Roam 32 2.3 Bluetooth 33 2.4 ZigBee 36 2.5 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) 37 2.6 Private Mobile Radio (PMR) 39 2.6.1 PMR Elements 40 2.6.2 Attributes 40 2.6.3 TETRA 41 2.7 Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) 42 References 44 3 System Requirements 45 3.1 Environments 45 3.1.1 Corporate Buildings 46 3.1.2 Airports 47 3.1.3 Trains and Railway Stations 50 3.1.4 Shopping Centres 52 3.1.5 Hospitals 53 3.1.6 Arenas and Stadiums 54 3.1.6.1 What Makes a Stadium so Special? 56 3.1.6.2 Mix of Communities with Different Needs 56 3.1.7 University Campuses 57 3.1.8 Underground Stations 59 3.1.9 Cinemas and Theatres 60 3.1.10 Hotels 60 3.1.11 Cruise Ships 62 3.2 Coverage 62 3.2.1 Cellular 62 3.2.2 Wi-Fi 64 3.2.3 Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) 65 3.3 Isolation 66 3.4 Leakage 67 3.5 Capacity 67 3.6 Interference 70 3.7 Signal Quality 71 3.8 Technology 72 3.9 Cost 72 3.10 Upgradeability 73 3.11 System Expansion 74 3.12 Conclusion 74 References 74 4 Radio Propagation 77 4.1 Maxwell s Equations 77 4.1.1 Gauss s Law for Electricity 79 4.1.2 Gauss s Law for Magnetism 79 4.1.3 Faraday s Law of Induction 81 4.1.4 Ampere s Circuital Law 81 4.1.5 Consequence of Maxwell s Equations 82 4.2 Plane Waves 82 4.2.1 Wave Equation 83 4.2.2 Plane Wave Properties 84 4.2.3 Wave Polarization 85 4.2.4 Wave Propagation in Lossy Media 87 4.3 Propagation Mechanisms 87 4.3.1 Is Electromagnetic Theory Wrong Inside Buildings? 87 4.3.2 Loss and Skin Effect 88 4.3.3 Reflection 89 4.3.4 Refraction (Transmission) 90 4.3.5 Diffraction 91 4.3.6 Scattering 92 4.3.7 Waveguiding 94 4.4 Effects of Materials 95 4.5 Path Loss 97 4.5.1 Median Path Loss 97 4.5.2 Link Budgets 98 4.5.3 Receiver Sensitivity 99 4.5.4 Maximum Acceptable Path Loss (MAPL) 99 4.5.5 Free-Space Loss 100 4.5.6 Excess Loss 100 4.6 Fast Fading 101 4.7 Shadowing (Slow Fading) 103 4.8 Building Penetration Loss 104 4.8.1 Radio Wave Propagation into Buildings 106 4.8.2 Variations with Frequency 106 4.8.3 Variations with Depth and Clutter 109 4.8.4 Comparison of Assumptions Made by Ofcom 109 4.9 Conclusion 109 References 110 5 Channel Modelling 113 5.1 The Importance of Channel Modelling 113 5.2 Propagation Modelling Challenges 114 5.3 Model Classification 114 5.3.1 Channel Bandwidth 114 5.3.2 Propagation Environment 115 5.3.3 Model Construction Approach 115 5.4 Model Accuracy 116 5.5 Empirical Models 117 5.5.1 Power Law Model 118 5.5.2 Keenan Motley Model 119 5.5.3 ITU-R Indoor Model 121 5.5.4 Siwiak Bertoni Yano (SBY) Multipath-Based Model 122 5.5.5 Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint Model 122 5.5.6 Tuan Empirical Indoor Model: 900 MHz to 5.7 GHz 123 5.5.7 Attenuation Factor Model 123 5.5.8 Indoor Dominant Path Model (DPM) 124 5.5.9 COST-231 Multiwall Model 126 5.6 Physical Models 128 5.6.1 Introduction to Ray Tracing 129 5.6.2 Honcharenko Bertoni Model 130 5.6.3 Ray-Tracing Site-Specific Model 131 5.6.4 Lee Ray-Tracing Model 132 5.6.5 Multichannel Coupling (MCC) Prediction 133 5.6.6 Angular Z-Buffer Algorithm for Efficient Ray Tracing 136 5.6.7 Intelligent Ray-Tracing (IRT) Model 138 5.6.8 Hybrid Parabolic Equation Integral Equation Indoor Model 139 5.7 Hybrid Models 140 5.7.1 Reduced-Complexity UTD Model 140 5.7.2 Measurement-Based Prediction 142 5.8 Outdoor-to-Indoor Models 143 5.8.1 COST-231 Line-of-Sight Model 144 5.8.2 COST-231 Non-Line-of-Sight Model 146 5.8.3 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Penetration Model 147 5.8.4 Ichitsubo Okamoto Outdoor-to-Indoor Model (800 MHz 8 GHz) 148 5.8.5 Taga Miura Model Using Identification of Path Passing Through Wall Openings 149 5.9 Models for Propagation in Radiating Cables 150 5.9.1 Zhang Model 150 5.9.2 Carter Model 151 5.9.3 Sesena Aragon Castanon Model 152 5.10 Wideband Channel Characteristics 153 5.11 Noise Considerations 156 5.11.1 Noise Sources 157 5.11.2 Noise Parameters 157 5.11.3 Considerations for Indoor Wireless Systems 158 5.12 In-Building Planning Tools 159 5.12.1 iBwave Design 159 5.12.2 WiMap-4G 160 5.12.3 Mentum CellPanner 160 5.12.4 Atrium 160 5.12.5 WinProp 160 5.12.6 CellTrace 161 5.12.7 EDX Signal Pro 161 5.12.8 iBuildNet DAS 162 5.12.9 Wireless InSite 162 5.13 Conclusion 162 References 163 6 Antennas 167 6.1 The Basics of Antenna Theory 167 6.1.1 Conditions for Radiation 168 6.1.2 Antenna Regions 169 6.2 Antenna Parameters 170 6.2.1 Radiation Pattern 171 6.2.2 Directivity 174 6.2.3 Radiation Resistance and Efficiency 176 6.2.4 Power Gain 177 6.2.5 Bandwidth 178 6.2.6 Reciprocity 179 6.2.7 Receiving Antenna Aperture 180 6.2.8 Beamwidth 181 6.2.9 Cross-Polar Discrimination 181 6.2.10 Polarization Matching 182 6.3 Antenna Types 183 6.3.1 Linear Wire 183 6.3.2 Loop 184 6.3.3 Antenna Arrays 186 6.3.4 Travelling Wave and Broadband 186 6.3.5 Microstrip 187 6.3.6 Yagi-Uda 188 6.3.7 Aperture Antennas 189 6.3.8 Horn 189 6.3.9 Monopole 190 6.3.10 Parabolic Reflector (Dish) 190 6.3.11 Smart Antennas 192 6.4 Antenna Performance Issues 193 6.4.1 Mean Effective Gain (MEG) 193 6.4.2 Radiation Pattern Extrapolation 195 6.4.3 Reliability of Radiation Patterns 198 6.5 Antenna Measurements 199 6.6 MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) 200 6.7 Examples Of In-Building Antennas 203 6.7.1 In-Building Cellular Antenna Requirements 203 Contents xi 6.7.2 Omnidirectional 203 6.7.3 Directional 206 6.7.4 Macrocell 207 6.7.5 Multiband 207 6.7.6 Deployment Considerations 208 6.8 Radiating Cables 208 6.8.1 Structure 209 6.8.2 Applications 210 6.8.3 Propagation Modes 210 6.8.3.1 Coupled Mode 210 6.8.3.2 Radiating Mode 211 6.8.4 Parameters 211 6.8.4.1 Coupling Loss 211 6.8.4.2 Insertion Loss 211 6.8.4.3 Bandwidth 211 6.8.5 Practical Considerations 212 6.9 Conclusion 212 References 212 7 Radio Measurements 215 7.1 The Value of Measurements 215 7.1.1 Tuning Empirical Path Loss Models 216 7.1.2 Creating Synthetic Channel Models 218 7.1.3 Validating Indoor Radio Designs 218 7.2 Methodology for Indoor Measurements 218 7.2.1 Measurement Campaign Plan 218 7.2.2 Preliminary Site Visit 219 7.2.3 Site Acquisition and Permissions 219 7.2.4 Equipment Checklist 219 7.2.5 Measurement Campaign 219 7.2.6 Data Postprocessing 219 7.2.7 Postvisit to Site 219 7.3 Types of Measurement Systems 220 7.3.1 Narrowband Measurements 220 7.3.1.1 CW Measurements 221 7.3.1.2 Code Scanning 223 7.3.1.3 Engineering Test Mobiles 224 7.3.1.4 Comparative Analysis 224 7.3.2 Wideband Measurements 226 7.4 Measurement Equipment 228 7.4.1 Transmit Equipment 228 7.4.2 Receive Rquipment 229 7.4.3 Miscellaneous Testing Components 230 7.4.4 Buyer s Guide 232 7.5 Types of Indoor Measurement Surveys 233 7.5.1 Design Survey 233 7.5.2 Existing Coverage 234 7.6 Guidelines for Effective Radio Measurements 235 7.6.1 Planning Your Measurements: The MCP 235 7.6.1.1 Introduction 236 7.6.1.2 Objectives 236 7.6.1.3 Requirements 236 7.6.1.4 Antenna Locations 237 7.6.1.5 Walk Test Routes 238 7.6.1.6 Workplan 238 7.6.1.7 Implications of Not Having an MCP 238 7.6.2 Choose a Suitable Navigation System 238 7.6.3 Signal Sampling and Averaging Considerations 241 7.6.4 Documentation 245 7.6.5 Walk Test Best Practice 246 7.6.6 Equipment Calibration and Validation 247 7.7 Model Tuning and Validation 250 7.7.1 Measurements for Model Tuning 251 7.7.2 Factors Affecting Model Tuning 252 7.7.3 Impact of Having Insufficient Measurements for Tuning 252 7.8 Conclusion 254 References 255 8 Capacity Planning and Dimensioning 257 8.1 Introduction 257 8.2 An Overview On Teletraffic 258 8.2.1 Trunking 259 8.2.2 Loss and Queue Networks 260 8.2.3 Busy-Hour 260 8.3 Capacity Parameters Circuit-Switched 260 8.3.1 Blocking 260 8.3.2 Grade of Service 261 8.3.3 Traffic per User 261 8.3.4 Offered and Carried Traffic 262 8.3.5 Traffic Categories 263 8.4 Data Transmission Parameters 264 8.4.1 Delay 264 8.4.2 Throughput 264 8.4.3 Latency 264 8.5 Capacity Limits 265 8.6 Radio Resource Management 265 8.7 Load Sharing: Base Station Hotels 266 8.8 Traffic Mapping 267 8.9 Capacity Calculations 267 8.9.1 Service Categories 268 8.9.1.1 Service Types 268 8.9.1.2 Traffic Classes 268 8.9.1.3 Service Category Parameters 269 8.9.2 Service Environment 270 8.9.3 Radio Environment 271 8.9.4 Radio Access Technology Groups (RATGs) 272 8.9.5 Methodology Flowchart 272 8.9.6 Market Data Analysis 273 8.9.7 Traffic Demand Calculation by SE and SC 274 8.9.8 Traffic Distribution Amongst RATGs 275 8.9.8.1 Distribution Ratios 276 8.9.8.2 Distribution of Session Arrival Rates 278 8.9.8.3 Offered Traffic 279 8.9.9 Carried Traffic Capacity Determination 279 8.9.9.1 Circuit-Switched Traffic 279 8.9.9.2 Packet-Switched Traffic 280 8.10 Wi-Fi Capacity 280 8.10.1 The Challenge 280 8.10.2 Facts and Figures 280 8.10.3 Coverage Design 282 8.10.4 Capacity Design 283 8.10.5 Additional Challenges 283 8.11 Data Offloading Considerations 284 8.11.1 Data Offload Using Femtocells 287 8.11.2 Data Offload Using Wi-Fi 287 8.11.3 Femtocell versus Wi-Fi 287 8.11.3.1 Wi-Fi 287 8.11.3.2 Femtocells 288 8.11.4 Carrier Wi-Fi 288 8.11.5 UMA/GAN 288 8.11.6 Seamless Authentication 289 8.11.7 Turning Wi-Fi into an Operator Network 289 8.11.7.1 WBA Next Generation Hotspot 290 8.11.7.2 WBA Roaming 290 8.11.7.3 WFA Hotspot 290 8.11.7.4 ANDSF 290 8.11.7.5 I-WLAN 290 8.11.8 Discussion 290 8.12 Conclusion 291 References 292 9 RF Equipment and Distribution Systems 293 9.1 Base Stations 293 9.2 Distributed Antenna Systems 295 9.2.1 Passive DAS 296 9.2.2 Active DAS 297 9.2.3 Hybrid DAS 299 9.2.4 Installation 300 9.3 RF Miscellaneous Passive 300 9.3.1 Cables 301 9.3.2 Splitters/Combiners 302 9.3.3 Antennas 302 9.3.4 Directional Couplers 303 9.3.5 Tappers 304 9.3.6 Attenuators 305 9.3.7 Circulators 306 9.3.8 Terminations/Dummy Loads 307 9.3.9 Duplexers 308 9.3.10 Diplexers/Triplexers 308 9.4 RF Miscellaneous Active 308 9.4.1 Amplifiers 308 9.4.2 Active DAS Components 309 9.4.2.1 Main Unit 309 9.4.2.2 Expansion Unit 309 9.4.2.3 Remote Unit 309 9.5 Repeaters 310 9.5.1 Repeater Deployments 310 9.5.1.1 Operator-Deployed Repeaters 310 9.5.1.2 Traditional Consumer Repeaters 311 9.5.1.3 Intelligent Repeaters 312 9.5.2 Disadvantages 312 9.5.3 Installation Issues 312 9.5.4 Benefits 314 9.6 Conclusion 314 References 314 10 Small Cells 315Simon R. Saunders 10.1 What is a Small Cell? 315 10.2 Small Cell Species 316 10.2.1 Femtocells for Residential Environments 316 10.2.2 Picocells 316 10.2.3 Metrocells 317 10.2.4 Rural and Remote Small Cells 317 10.3 The Case for Small Cells 318 10.3.1 Capacity 318 10.3.2 Coverage 318 10.3.3 User Experience 318 10.3.4 Cost Effectiveness 318 10.4 History and Standards 318 10.5 Architecture and Management 320 10.6 Coverage, Capacity and Interference 321 10.7 Business Case 323 10.8 Regulation 324 10.9 Small Cells ComparedWith Other IndoorWireless Technologies 324 10.9.1 Distributed Antenna Systems (DASs) 324 10.9.2 Wi-Fi 325 10.9.3 Repeaters and Relay Nodes 326 10.10 Market 326 10.11 Future: New Architectures and Towards 5G 327 References 327 11 In-Building Case Studies 331Vladan Jevremovic 11.1 Public Venue 331 11.1.1 Scenario 332 11.1.2 Solution 332 11.1.3 Common Design Requirements 332 11.1.3.1 Multicarrier (Neutral Host) 332 11.1.3.2 Multiband 333 11.1.3.3 Multitechnology 334 11.1.4 Common Best Practices 335 11.1.4.1 Passive Intermodulation (PIM) 335 11.1.4.2 Downlink Design 335 11.1.4.3 Uplink Design 336 11.1.5 Summary 341 11.2 Stadium 341 11.2.1 Scenario 342 11.2.2 Solution 344 11.2.3 Design Requirements 344 11.2.3.1 RF Coverage 344 11.2.3.2 Capacity 344 11.2.3.3 Handoff Management 344 11.2.3.4 Interference Management 345 11.2.4 Site Survey 345 11.2.5 Detailed 3-D Modelling 346 11.2.6 Sectorization 348 11.2.7 Macro Coverage Management 349 11.2.8 Passive Intermodulation Management 350 11.2.9 Design for Stadium Capacity 350 11.2.9.1 Data Capacity Sizing 352 11.2.9.2 Voice Capacity Sizing 358 11.2.10 RF Coverage Design 360 11.2.11 Summary 361 11.3 Shopping Centre 362 11.3.1 Scenario 362 11.3.2 Design Requirements 363 11.3.2.1 RF Coverage 363 11.3.2.2 Antenna Placement Restrictions 364 11.3.3 Solution 364 11.3.4 Antenna Choice and Placement 364 11.3.5 RF Coverage Design 365 11.3.6 Capacity Dimensioning 367 11.3.7 Sectorization 372 11.3.8 Data Rate Coverage 372 11.3.9 Summary 373 11.4 Business Campus 374 11.4.1 Scenario 374 11.4.2 Design Requirements 375 11.4.2.1 RF Coverage 375 11.4.2.2 Handoff Management 376 11.4.2.3 Interference Management 377 11.4.3 Solution 378 11.4.4 Interference Control 378 11.4.5 Lift Coverage 380 11.4.6 Detailed RF Coverage Design 383 11.4.7 Summary 385 11.5 Underground (Subway) 386 11.5.1 Scenario 386 11.5.2 Design Requirements 387 11.5.2.1 RF Coverage 387 11.5.2.2 Capacity 389 11.5.2.3 Handoff Management 390 11.5.3 Solution 390 11.5.4 RF Coverage Design 391 11.5.5 Capacity 393 11.5.5.1 Data 393 11.5.5.2 Voice 400 11.5.6 Environmental Challenges 402 11.5.7 Radio Coverage Maps 403 11.5.8 Summary 406 References 406 Index 409

About the Author

Dr. Alejandro Aragon-Zavala, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Queretaro, MexicoDr. Aragon-Zavala graduated from Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Queretaro as Electronics and Communications Engineer in December 1991. In 1998 he received his MSc in Satellite Communication Engineering from the University of Surrey, and in 2003 his PhD in Antennas and Propagation at the same university. He has worked as an engineer and consultant in the industry, and since 2003, Dr. Aragon-Zavala has been the Academic Director of the former IEC and ISE undergraduate programs at the Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Queretaro, and is in charge of ITE (all Electronic Engineering degrees). His research interests include: mobile communications, satellite systems, high-altitude platform systems, antenna design and indoor propagation.

EAN: 9780470741160
ISBN: 0470741163
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Dimensions: 24.64 x 17.53 x 2.54 centimetres (0.83 kg)
Age Range: 15+ years
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