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Information Technology Project Management


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Table of Contents

Preface xiii About the Author xviii Chapter 1 The Nature of Information Technology Projects 1 Introduction 1 What Is a Project? 2 Project Attributes 2 What Is Project Management? 4 Projects, Programs, and Portfolios 4 Project Management and Information Technology 5 The State of IT Project Management 7 Why Many Projects Fail 8 Improving the Likelihood of Success 10 The Purpose of this Book 12 Chapter Summary 12 Review Questions 13 Husky Air-Pilot Angels 14 Husky Air Assignment 15 The Martial Arts Academy-School Management System 16 Quick Thinking-Involving the User 19 Quick Thinking-FAA Nextgen Air-Traffic Control Project 20 Case Studies 20 Bibliography 23 Chapter 2 Project Methodologies and Processes 24 Introduction 24 The Project Life Cycle 25 The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK (R)) 27 Project Management Knowledge Areas 27 Project Processes 28 Project Management Process Groups 29 PRINCE2 (R) 31 PRINCE2 (R) Processes 31 PRINCE2 (R) Themes 32 PRINCE2 (R) Principles 33 The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) 34 The PLC and the SDLC 35 Implementing the SDLC 35 Waterfall 36 Agile Systems Development 38 What Is Agile? 38 Some Commonly Used Agile Methods 40 Waterfall versus Agile? 41 Learning Cycles and Lessons Learned 42 Chapter Summary 46 Review Questions 48 Husky Air-Pilot Angels Assignment 50 Martial Arts Academy (MAA) Assignment 51 Quick Thinking-Learning from Failure 53 Quick Thinking-Doing Agile or Being Agile? 54 Case Studies 55 Bibliography 58 Chapter 3 Measurable Organizational Value and the Business Case 59 Introduction 59 Measurable Organizational Value (MOV) 60 The MOV and Project Objectives 61 Developing the MOV 62 The Business Case 67 What Is a Business Case? 67 Developing the Business Case 68 Project Selection and Approval 76 The IT Project Selection Process 76 The Project Selection Decision 76 Chapter Summary 77 Review Questions 77 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 78 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 80 Quick Thinking-Measuring the Immeasurable 83 Quick Thinking-The Elevator Pitch 83 Case Studies 84 Bibliography 89 Chapter 4 Project Planning: The Project Infrastructure 91 Introduction 91 Project Governance 92 The Project Team 94 The Project Manager 94 The Project Team 95 The Organization and Project Planning 96 The Functional Organization 96 The Project Organization 99 The Matrix Organization 100 Procuring External Project Resources 101 Procurement Planning 102 Contracts Between Sellers and Buyers 103 The Project Environment 105 The Project Charter 105 What Should Be in a Project Charter? 106 Project Identification 106 Project Stakeholders 107 Project Description 107 Measurable Organizational Value (MOV) 107 Project Scope 107 Project Schedule 107 Project Budget 108 Quality Standards 108 Resources 108 Assumptions and Risks 108 Project Administration 108 Acceptance and Approval 109 References 109 Terminology 109 Chapter Summary 110 Review Questions 111 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 112 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 113 Quick Thinking-The Project Sponsor 114 Quick Thinking-Projects as Social Networks 114 Case Studies 115 Bibliography 119 Chapter 5 Project Planning: Scope and the Work Breakdown Structure 120 Introduction 120 The Triple Constraint 121 Defining and Managing Project Scope 122 Plan Scope Management 123 Collect Requirements 123 Define Scope 123 The Scope Boundary 123 The Statement of Work (SOW) 124 The Scope Statement 124 Project-Oriented Scope 125 Product-Oriented Scope 125 Validate Scope 128 Control Scope 128 Scope Change Control Procedures 129 The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 130 Work Packages 131 Deliverables and Milestones 131 Developing the WBS 132 Project Estimation 134 Guesstimating 134 Delphi Technique 134 Time Boxing 135 Top-Down Estimating 135 Bottom-Up Estimating 136 Poker Planning 136 Chapter Summary 138 Review Questions 139 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 140 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 141 Quick Thinking-Sinking a Project 142 Quick Thinking-More People = More Problems 143 Quick Thinking-Politics and Estimates 143 Case Studies 144 Bibliography 147 Chapter 6 Project Planning: The Schedule and Budget 149 Introduction 149 Developing the Project Schedule 151 Gantt Charts 151 Project Network Diagrams 153 Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) 157 Project Management Software Tools 159 Developing the Project Budget 161 The Baseline Plan 163 The Kick-Off Meeting 164 Chapter Summary 164 Review Questions 166 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 166 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 167 Quick Thinking-Planning versus the Plan 168 Quick Thinking-The Map is Not the Territory 168 Case Studies 169 Bibliography 172 Chapter 7 Managing Project Risk 173 Introduction 173 Create a Risk Plan 176 Identify Risks 176 A Project Risk Identification Framework 176 Applying the Project Risk Identification Framework 178 Other Tools and Techniques 179 Analyze Risk 182 Qualitative Approaches 183 Quantitative Approaches 186 Discrete Probability Distributions 186 Continuous Probability Distributions 186 Develop Risk Strategies 191 Monitor and Control Risk 193 Respond and Evaluate Response to Risk 193 Chapter Summary 194 Review Questions 196 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 197 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 197 Quick Thinking-Send in the Reserves 198 Quick Thinking-Risky Management 199 Case Studies 200 Bibliography 204 Chapter 8 Managing Project Stakeholders and Communication 205 Introduction 205 Stakeholder Analysis 206 The Informal Organization 206 Stakeholders 206 Stakeholder Analysis 206 Monitoring and Controlling the Project 207 The Project Communications Plan 209 Project Metrics 211 Burn-Down Chart 213 Earned Value 213 Analyzing Current Performance 216 Forecasting Project Performance 218 Reporting Performance and Progress 222 Information Distribution 222 Chapter Summary 223 Review Questions 224 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 225 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 227 Quick Thinking-Projects as Social Networks 228 Quick Thinking-Communication and Mentoring 229 Case Studies 230 Bibliography 233 Chapter 9 Managing Project Quality 234 Introduction 234 Quality Philosophies 237 Craftsmanship 237 Scientific Management 238 The Total Quality Management (TQM) Gurus 238 Process Capability and Maturity 240 The Project Quality Management Plan 242 Quality Philosophies and Principles 242 Quality Standards, Processes, and Metrics 244 Quality Assurance 245 Quality Control 247 Continuous Improvement: Learn, Mature, and Improve 251 Chapter Summary 251 Review Questions 252 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 253 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 253 Quick Thinking-Why Do We Accept Low-Quality Software? 254 Quick Thinking-OPM3 (R) 254 Case Studies 255 Bibliography 259 Chapter 10 Leading the Project Team 260 Introduction 260 Project Leadership 261 Some Modern Approaches to Leadership 261 Leadership Styles 263 Emotional Intelligence 264 Ethics and Leadership 265 Ethical Leadership 266 Some Common Ethical Dilemmas in Projects 268 Making Sound Ethical Decisions 269 Teams and Leadership 270 Multicultural Projects 272 The Challenges of International Projects 272 Understanding Diversity 273 Chapter Summary 274 Review Questions 275 Husky Air-Pilot Angels 275 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 276 Quick Thinking-Leadership and Listening 277 Quick Thinking-Sitting Ducks 277 Case Studies 278 Bibliography 281 Chapter 11 Managing Organizational Change, Resistance, and Conflict 282 Introduction 282 The Nature of Change 284 Change Has an Impact 284 Change Is a Process 285 Change Can Be Emotional 286 The Change Management Plan 287 Assess Willingness, Readiness, and Ability to Change 287 Develop or Adopt a Strategy for Change 289 Rational-Empirical Approach 289 Normative-Reeducation Approach 290 Power-Coercive Approach 290 Environmental-Adaptive Approach 291 Implement the Change Management Plan and Track Progress 291 Evaluate Experience and Develop Lessons Learned 292 Dealing with Resistance and Conflict 292 Resistance 292 Conflict 293 Chapter Summary 295 Review Questions 295 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 297 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 298 Quick Thinking-It's Not Easy Going Green 299 Quick Thinking-Cross-Functional and Multicultural Teams 299 Case Studies 300 Bibliography 305 Chapter 12 Project Completion 306 Introduction 306 Product Release or System Implementation 307 Direct Cutover 307 Parallel 308 Phased 308 Project Closure 310 Project Sponsor Acceptance 312 The Final Project Report 312 The Final Meeting and Presentation 313 Administrative Closure 313 Project Evaluation 314 Individual Performance Review 314 Project Close-Out (Postmortem) Review 315 Project Audit 316 Evaluating Project Success-The MOV 316 Chapter Summary 317 Review Questions 318 Husky Air Assignment-Pilot Angels 319 The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)-School Management System 319 Quick Thinking-Killing a Project 320 Quick Thinking-The Post-Implementation Audit 320 Case Studies 321 Bibliography 324 Appendix: An Introduction to Function Point Analysis (Available online at Index 325

About the Author

Jack T. Marchewka is an associate professor, the Barsema Professor of Management Information Systems, and the director of the Business Information Technology Transfer Center (BITTC) at Northern Illinois University. He received his Ph.D. from Georgia State University's department of Computer Information Systems in 1994 and was a former faculty member at Kennesaw State University. Prior to entering academia, Dr. Marchewka was a vice president of MIS for a healthcare company in Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. Marchewka has taught a number of courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels and has been a guest lecturer at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University in the Netherlands. His articles have appeared in journals such as Information Resources Management Journal, Information Technology & People, Journal of International Information Management, and Journal of Informatics Education and Research.

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