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Inorganic Plant Nutrition

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Table of Contents

A.- I. General Chapters of Inorganic Plant Nutrition.- I.1 General Introduction to the Mineral Nutrition of Plants (With 11 Figures).- 1 Introduction and Historical Resume.- 1.1 Essential Mineral Elements - Plant Nutrients.- 1.2 Function of Essential Mineral Elements.- 1.3 Beneficial Mineral Elements.- 1.4 Recent Developments.- 1.4.1 Calcium.- 1.4.2 Potassium.- 1.4.3 Phosphorus.- 1.4.4 Nitrogen.- 1.4.5 Copper.- 1.4.6 Chlorine.- 2 Uptake and Long-Distance Transport of Mineral Elements.- 2.1 Ion Concentration at the Root Surface, Role of the "Rhizosphere".- 2.2 Long-Distance Transport in the Xylem.- 2.2.1 From the Roots to the Shoot.- 2.2.2 Into Fruits, Seeds and Storage Organs.- 2.2.3 Retranslocation of Mineral Elements from Leaves.- 3 Calcium Nutrition of Higher Plants.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Calcium Demand of Higher Plants.- 3.3 Calcium Uptake by the Roots.- 3.4 Long-Distance Transport of Calcium.- 3.4.1 Xylem Transport.- 3.4.2 Phloem Transport.- 3.4.3 Xylem Versus Phloem Transport.- 3.5 Role of Phytohormones and Growth Regulators.- 3.6 Conclusion and Outlook.- 4 Mineral Nutrition and Physiology of Yield Formation - Sink-Source Relationship.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Effect of Mineral Nutrition on Phytohormone Level and Sink Formation.- 4.3 Effect of Mineral Nutrients on Fertilization.- 4.4 Source-Sink Interactions in Relation to Mineral Nutrition.- 5 Environmental Aspects of Mineral Nutrition.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Nitrogen.- 5.1.2 Heavy Metals.- 5.2 Heavy Metal Toxicity.- 5.3 Heavy Metals in the Food Chain.- 5.4 Heavy Metals in the Soil/Plant System.- 5.4.1 Content of Soils.- 5.4.2 Soil Factors Affecting Heavy Metal Accumulation in Plants.- 5.4.3 Genotypic Differences in Heavy Metal Uptake.- 5.4.4 Distribution Within the Plants and Their Organs.- 5.4.5 Heavy Metal Tolerance.- 5.5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- I.2 The Significance of Rhizosphere Microflora and Mycorrhizas in Plant Nutrition (With 7 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Energy Supplies in the Rhizosphere.- 2.1 Exudates.- 2.2 Secretions.- 2.3 Plant Mucilages.- 2.4 Mucigel.- 2.5 Lysates.- 3 Microbiology of the Rhizosphere.- 3.1 Populations of Micro-Organisms.- 3.2 Colonization of Roots by Micro-Organisms.- 4 Mathematical Modelling of the Rhizosphere.- 5 Microscopy of the Rhizosphere.- 5.1 Light Microscopy.- 5.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (S.E.M.).- 5.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy (T.E.M.).- 5.3.1 General Description.- 5.3.2 Origin and Fine Structure of Root Mucilage.- 5.3.3 Microbial Invasion of the Mucilage and the Formation of Mucigel.- 5.3.4 Functions of Root Mucilage and Mucigel.- 5.3.5 The Outer Rhizosphere.- 5.3.6 Invasion of the Root by Microorganisms.- 6 The Role of Rhizosphere Microorganisms in Plant Nutrition.- 6.1 Availability of Nutrients.- 6.1.1 Nutrient Release and Immobilization.- 6.1.2 Nitrification and Denitrification.- 6.1.3 Nitrogen Fixation.- 6.1.4 Phosphate Availability.- 6.1.5 Minor Nutrients.- 6.2 Growth and Morphology of Roots.- 6.2.1 Root Length and Root Hairs.- 6.2.2 Proteoid Roots.- 6.3 Nutrient Uptake Processes.- 6.4 Physiology and Development -.- 7 Myeorrhizas.- 7.1 Plant Responses to Infection.- 7.2 Mechanisms of the Response.- 7.2.1 Nutrient Availability.- 7.2.2 Absorption Characteristics of the Root.- 7.2.3 Absorption by the Fungus Component.- 7.3 Energy Requirements of Myeorrhizas.- 7.4 Overview of Myeorrhizas.- 8 General Conclusions.- References.- I.3 Modern Solution Culture Techniques (With 3 Figures).- 1 Major Differences Between Solution Culture and Soil Culture.- 1.1 Mechanical Support.- 1.2 Spatial Variation in Root Environment Parameters.- 1.3 Temporal Variation in Root Environment Parameters.- 1.3.1 Nutrient Depletion.- 1.3.2 pH Shifts.- 1.4 Root-Microorganism Interactions.- 2 Uses and Limitations of Existing Solution Culture Methods.- 2.1 Non-Renewed or Intermittently Renewed Water Cultures and Sand Cultures.- 2.1.1 Use in Teaching, Demonstration, and Diagnosis.- 2.1.2 Production of Roots for Ion Transport Studies.- 2.1.3 Nutrient Essentiality.- 2.1.4 Effects of Root Environment Parameters.- 2.1.5 Establishment of Critical Tissue Concentrations.- 2.1.6 Control of Plant Nutrient Status.- 2.1.7 Study of Symbiotic Associations with Microorganisms.- 2.1.8 Commercial Crop Production.- 2.2 Mist Culture.- 2.3 Flowing Solution Culture.- 2.3.1 The Flow Rate Problem.- 2.3.2 Composition of Flowing Culture Solutions.- 2.3.3 Research Applications.- 2.3.4 Likely Future Developments.- 2.3.5 Commercial Crop Production.- 3 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- I.4 Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies Using Plant Tests (With 5 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Plant Analysis.- 2.1 Physiological Basis.- 2.2 Choice of Tissue.- 2.3 Factors Affecting the Relationship Between Nutrient Concentration and Yield.- 2.3.1 Plant Development.- 2.3.2 Effects of Changes in Age of Tissue.- 2.3.3 Plant Age and Critical Levels.- 2.3.4 Interactions Between Nutrient Elements.- 2.3.5 Environmental Factors.- 2.3.6 Other Factors Affecting Nutrient Composition.- 3 Physiological and Biochemical Approaches to Diagnosis.- 3.1 Introductory Remarks.- 3.2 Physiological Approaches.- 3.2.1 Physiological Assessment.- 3.2.2 Nutrient Stress.- 3.2.3 Approaches Based on Photosynthesis.- 3.2.4 Other Approaches.- 3.3 Biochemical Approaches.- 3.3.1 Nitrogen and Molybdenum.- 3.3.2 Phosphorus.- 3.3.3 Potassium and Magnesium.- 3.3.4 Iron and Manganese.- 3.3.5 Copper.- 3.3.6 Zinc.- 4 Prospects for the Future.- References.- 1.5 Interactions Between Nutrients in Higher Plants (With 9 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Interactions Between Nutrients in Monoculture.- 2.1 Interactions Between Nutrients Affecting the Absorption of Nutrients.- 2.1.1 Interactions Occurring in the Soil.- 2.1.2 Absorption from Solution at the Root Surface.- 2.2 Interactions Between Nutrients Affecting the Utilization of Nutrients Within the Plant.- 2.2.1 Distribution.- 2.2.2 Function.- 2.3 Complex Interactions Between Nutrients Involving Several Processes.- 2.3.1 Calcium/Aluminium/Phosphate.- 2.3.2 Zinc/Phosphate.- 3 Interactions Between Nutrients in Mixed Communities.- 4 Conclusion.- References.- I.6 Import and Export of Mineral Nutrients in Plant Roots (With 10 Figures).- 1 Introduction: The Dual Role of Roots in the Evolution of Higher Land Plants.- 2 Relations Between Structure and Transport Functions Along the Length of Roots.- 2.1 The Phenomenon of Variations in Transport Functions Along the Length of Roots.- 2.2 Structure-Function Relations in Various Root Zones.- 2.2.1 The Root Surface.- 2.2.2 The Cortex.- 2.2.3 The Endodermis.- 2.2.4 The Stele.- 3 Variations of Physiological Activities Along the Length of Roots.- 3.1 Growth, Differentiation and Hormonal Gradients.- 3.2 Bioelectrical Fields Along Roots.- 3.3 Differences in Ion Transport Mechanisms Along Roots.- 4 Root-Shoot Interactions and Circulation in the Whole Plant.- 4.1 Some Examples Illustrating General Aspects of Circulation.- 4.2 Nitrogen, Sulphur and Phosphorus.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- I.7 Cycling of Elements in the Biosphere (With 5 Figures).- 1 The Sources of Plant Constituents.- 1.1 Soil and Atmospheric Sources.- 1.2 The Weathering Process.- 2 The Nature of Cycles.- 2.1 The Hydrologic Cycle.- 2.2 The Sedimentary Cycle.- 2.3 The Magmatic Cycle.- 2.4 The Geobiological Cycles.- 3 The Nitrogen Cycle.- 3.1 Overall Cycle Features.- 3.2 Nitrification.- 3.3 Denitrification.- 3.4 Nitrogen Fixation.- 3.5 Human Influences.- 4 The Sulfur Cycle.- 4.1 Comparison with the Nitrogen Cycle.- 4.2 Microbial Oxidation.- 4.3 Sulfate Reduction.- 4.4 Patterns of Sulfur Movement.- 4.5 Human Influences.- 5 The Phosphorus Cycle.- 5.1 Oxidation and Reduction.- 5.2 Movement and Transport in the Biosphere.- 5.3 Human Influences.- 6 Other Elements.- 6.1 Biological Cycling.- 6.2 The Special Significance of Iron and Aluminum.- 6.3 Hydrogen Ion.- 6.4 Characteristics of Sediments.- 6.5 Passive Cycling.- 6.6 Possibilities of Deficiency.- 7 "Open" Versus "Closed" Agricultural Systems.- References.- II. Inorganic Nitrogen Nutrition.- II.1 Physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics of Dinitrogen Fixation (With 3 Figures).- 1 The Nitrogen-Fixing Organisms and the Nitrogenase Reactions.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Nitrogen Fixation by Free-Living Organisms.- 1.3 Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation.- 1.4 Substrates of Nitrogenase.- 2 Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Nomenclature of Nitrogenase Proteins.- 2.3 Physicochemical Properties of Nitrogenase Proteins.- 2.4 Metal Clusters in Nitrogenase Proteins.- 2.5 EPR and Moessbauer Spectroscopy on the MoFe Protein.- 2.6 The FeMo Cofactor and the Fe Protein.- 2.7 Nitrogenase Proteins in Photosynthetic Organisms.- 2.8 The Mechanism of Nitrogenase Activity.- 2.8.1 The Roles of the Two Proteins.- 2.8.2 Evidence for Interaction of MgATP and MgADP with the MoFe Protein.- 2.8.3 The Nature of the Active Site(s).- 2.8.4 Pathways of N2-Reduction.- 3 Electron Transport to Nitrogenase.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Ferredoxins.- 3.3 Flavodoxins.- 3.4 Electron Donors.- 4 Mechanisms to Protect Nitrogenase Against Damage by Oxygen.- 4.1 In Free-Living Organisms.- 4.2 The Heterocysts of Blue-Green Algae.- 4.3 The Role of Leghaemoglobin in Legume Nodules.- 5 Regulation of Nitrogenase Activity and Biosynthesis.- 5.1 Regulation of Nitrogenase Biosynthesis.- 5.2 Regulation of Nitrogenase Activity.- 6 The Hydrogenase-Nitrogenase Relationship.- 7 The Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Nitrogen Fixation Genes.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The nif Genes.- 7.3 nif Gene Products.- 7.4 Cloning of K. pneumoniae nif Genes.- 7.5 A Physical Map of nif Genes.- 7.6 Interspecies Homology of Nitrogenase Genes.- References.- II.2 Dinitrogen-Fixing Symbioses with Legumes, Non-Legume Angiosperms and Associative Symbioses (With 7 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Description of the Main Symbiotic Dinitrogen-Fixing Systems.- 2.1 Associative Symbioses.- 2.2 Symbioses with Cyanobacteria.- 2.2.1 Distribution.- 2.2.2 Description and Development.- 2.2.3 N2 Fixation (C2H2 Reduction).- 2.3 Root Nodules with Actinomycetes: Actinorhizas.- 2.3.1 Distribution.- 2.3.2 Description.- 2.3.3 Infection and Development.- 2.3.4 N2 Fixation (C2H2 Reduction).- 2.4 Leguminous Root Nodules with Rhizobium.- 2.4.1 Distribution.- 2.4.2 Description.- 2.4.3 Infection and Nodule Development.- 2.4.4 N2 Fixation (C2H2 Reduction).- 2.5 Non-Leguminous Root Nodules with Rhizobium.- 3 The Dinitrogen-Fixing Micro-Symbionts: Isolates and Cultures.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cyanobacteria.- 3.3 Frankia, the Endophyte from the Actinorhizas.- 3.3.1 Isolation and Cultivation.- 3.3.2 Specificity.- 3.3.3 Nutrient Requirements.- 3.3.4 Metabolic Activities.- 3.4 Rhizobium.- 3.4.1 Isolation and Description.- 3.4.2 Taxonomy.- 3.4.3 Metabolism.- 3.4.4 N2 Fixation (C2H2 Reduction).- 3.4.5 Genetics.- 4 Symbiotic Relations.- 4.1 Chemotaxis and Rhizosphere Accumulation.- 4.2 Binding of Rhizobium to Root Hairs.- 4.3 Root Hair Deformation and Infection-Thread Formation.- 4.4 Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes.- 4.5 The Role of Plant Hormones in Nodule Formation.- 4.6 Miscellaneous Problems.- 5 The N2-Fixing System.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Bacteroids.- 5.3 The Bacteroid-Containing Plant Cells.- 5.4 Nitrogenase.- 5.5 NH3 Assimilation.- 5.6 Oxygen Regulation and Leghaemoglobin.- 5.7 Hydrogen Production and Hydrogen Uptake.- 6 Root Nodules as Part of the Whole Plant.- 7 Concluding Remarks.- References.- II.3 Dinitrogen Fixation in Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Associations (With 2 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Characterization of Rhizocoenoses.- 2.1 Sugar Cane - Beijerinckia.- 2.2 Paspalum notatum - Azotobacter paspali.- 2.3 Azospirillum Rhizocoenoses.- 2.3.1 Taxonomy of Azospirillum spp.- 2.3.2 Root Infection.- 2.3.3 Host Plant Specificity.- 2.3.4 Physiology of Azospirillum.- 2.4 Associations with Other N2-Fixing Bacteria.- 3 Agronomic Aspects.- 3.1 Plant Genotype Effects.- 3.2 Environmental Effects.- 3.3 Inoculation.- 4 Phyllosphere Associations.- 4.1 Microorganisms in the Phyllosphere.- 4.2 Nitrogen Fixation in the Phyllosphere.- 5 General Conclusion.- References.- II.4 Uptake and Reduction of Nitrate: Bacteria and Higher Plants.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Available Nitrogen Sources.- 2.1 Species Differences in Ammonium and Nitrate Utilization.- 2.2 Influence of Ammonium or Nitrate on Cation Uptake.- 2.3 Nitrate Uptake.- 2.4 Influence of Ammonium on Nitrate Uptake and Utilization.- 3 Nitrate Reduction.- 3.1 Bacteria.- 3.2 Dissimilatory Nitrate Reductase.- 3.3 Assimilatory Nitrate Reduction in Bacteria.- 3.4 Characterization of Nitrate Reductase from Higher Plants.- 4 Molybdenum in Nitrate Reduction.- 5 Nitrite Reduction.- 5.1 Assimilatory Bacteria.- 5.2 Dissimilatory Bacteria.- 5.3 Nitrite Reductase in Plants.- 6 Location of Enzymes of Nitrate Assimilation in Higher Plants.- 7 Provision of Reductant for Nitrate Assimilation in Higher Plants.- 8 Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Higher Plants.- 8.1 Substrate.- 8.2 Hormonal.- 8.3 Molybdenum.- 8.4 Ammonium.- 8.5 Light.- 8.6 Genetic.- 8.7 In Vivo Controls.- 9 Concluding Thoughts.- References.- II.5 Uptake and Reduction of Nitrate: Algae and Fungi (With 4 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction in Algae.- 2.1 Nitrate Reductase of Eucaryotic Algae.- 2.2 Nitrate Reductase in Blue-Green Algae.- 2.3 Nitrite Reductase in Algae.- 2.4 Location of Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction in Algal Cells.- 2.5 Stoichiometry Between Nitrate Reduction and O2 Exchange.- 3 Nitrate Uptake in Algae.- 3.1 General Remarks.- 3.2 Substrate Affinity.- 3.3 Light Dependence.- 3.4 pH-Dependence.- 3.5 Dependence on Carbon Sources.- 3.6 Inhibition by Anions.- 3.7 Inhibition by Ammonia and Amino Compounds.- 3.8 Effect of Metabolic Inhibitors and Uncouplers.- 3.9 Stoichiometry Between the Uptake of Nitrate and that of Other Ions.- 3.10 Transport Mechanism.- 4 Nitrite Uptake in Algae.- 5 General Remarks on Regulation of Nitrate and Nitrite Uptake.- 6 Uptake and Reduction of Nitrate and Nitrite in Fungi.- References.- III. Metabolism of Sulfur and Phosphorus.- III.I Reduction and Other Metabolic Reactions of Sulfate (With 6 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Place of Sulfate Reduction in the Sulfur Cycle.- 3 Phylogenetic Distribution of Reactions Involving Sulfate Transfer and Reduction.- 4 Sulfate Uptake, Activation and Transfer.- 5 Sulfate Reduction.- 5.1 Detailed Reactions of the Two Assimilatory Pathways.- 5.1.1 The APS Pathway.- 5.1.2 The PAPS Pathway.- 5.2 Location of Sulfate Reduction in Tissues and Organs of Multicellular Plants.- 6 Speculations on the Origin and Evolution of Pathways of Sulfate Reduction.- References.- III.2 Physiology and Metabolism of Phosphate and Its Compounds (With 4 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Uptake and Transport of Phosphate.- 3 Efflux of Phosphate, and Aspects of Phosphate Deficiency.- 4 Phosphorus Compartments and Pools.- 5 The Form of Phosphorus in the Cell.- 6 Synthesis and Turnover of Phosphorus Compounds.- 7 Dynamics of Phosphate Use in the Plant.- 8 Conclusions.- References.- Author- and Subject Index (see Part B).

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