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Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy

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Table of Contents

CONTRIBUTORS. FOREWORD. PREFACE. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. ABOUT THE AUTHORS. 1. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Renewable Sources of Energy. 1.3 Renewable Energy Versus Alternative Energy. 1.4 Planning and Development of Integrated Energy. 1.4.1 Grid-Supplied Electricity. 1.4.2 Load. 1.4.3 Distributed Generation. 1.5 Renewable Energy Economics. 1.5.1 Calculation of Electricity Generation Costs. 1.6 European Targets for Renewables. 1.6.1 Demand-Side Management Options. 1.6.2 Supply-Side Management Options. 1.7 Integration of Renewable Energy Sources. 1.7.1 Integration of Renewable Energy in the United States. 1.7.2 Energy Recovery Time. 1.7.3 Sustainability. 1.8 Modern Electronic Controls of Power Systems. References. 2. PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. State of a Thermodynamic System. 2.3. Fundamental Laws and Principles. 2.3.1 Example in a Nutshell. 2.3.2 Practical Problems Associated with Carnot Cycle Plant. 2.3.3 Rankine Cycle for Power Plants. 2.3.4 Brayton Cycle for Power Plants. 2.3.5 Energy and Power. 2.4 Examples of Energy Balance. 2.4.1 Simple Residential Energy Balance. 2.4.2 Refrigerator Energy Balance. 2.4.3 Energy Balance for a Water Heater. 2.4.4 Rock Bed Energy Balance. 2.4.5 Array of Solar Collectors. 2.4.6 Heat Pump. 2.4.7 Heat Transfer Analysis. 2.5 Planet Earth: A Closed But Not Isolated System. References. 3. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Determination of the Useful Power. 3.3 Expedient Topographical and Hydrological Measurements. 3.3.1 Simple Measurement of Elevation. 3.3.2 Global Positioning Systems for Elevation Measurement. 3.3.3 Specification of Pipe Losses. 3.3.4 Expedient Measurements of Stream Water Flow. 3.3.5 Civil Works. 3.4 Generating Unit. 3.4.1 Regulation Systems. 3.4.2 Butterfly Valves. 3.5 Waterwheels. 3.6 Turbines. 3.6.1 Pelton Turbine. 3.6.2 Francis Turbine. 3.6.3 Michel-Banki Turbine. 3.6.4 Kaplan or Hydraulic Propeller Turbine. 3.6.5 Deriaz Turbines. 3.6.6 Water Pumps Working as Turbines. 3.6.7 Specification of Hydro Turbines. References. 4. WIND POWER PLANTS. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Appropriate Location. 4.2.1 Evaluation of Wind Intensity. 4.2.2 Topography. 4.2.3 Purpose of the Energy Generated. 4.2.4 Means of Access. 4.3 Wind Power. 4.4 General Classification of Wind Turbines. 4.4.1 Rotor Turbines. 4.4.2 Multiple-Blade Turbines. 4.4.3 Drag Turbines (Savonius). 4.4.4 Lifting Turbines. 4.4.5 System TARP-WARP. 4.4.6 Accessories. 4.5 Generators and Speed Control Used in Wind Power Energy. 4.6 Analysis of Small Generating Systems. References. 5. THERMOSOLAR POWER PLANTS. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Water Heating by Solar Energy. 5.3 Heat Transfer Calculation of Thermally Isolated Reservoirs. 5.4 Heating Domestic Water. 5.5 Thermosolar Energy. 5.5.1 Parabolic Trough. 5.5.2 Parabolic Dish. 5.5.3 Solar Power Tower. 5.5.4 Production of Hydrogen. 5.6 Economical Analysis of Thermosolar Energy. References. 6. PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTS. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Solar Energy. 6.3 Generation of Electricity by Photovoltaic Effect. 6.4 Dependence of a PV Cell Characteristic on Temperature. 6.5 Solar Cell Output Characteristics. 6.6 Equivalent Models and Parameters for Photovoltaic Panels. 6.6.1 Dark-Current Electric Parameters of a Photovoltaic Panel. 6.6.2 Model of a PV Panel Consisting of n Cells in Series. 6.6.3 Model of a PV Panel Consisting of n Cells in Parallel. 6.7 Photovoltaic Systems. 6.7.1 Illumination Area. 6.7.2 Solar Modules and Panels. 6.7.3 Aluminum Structures. 6.7.4 Load Controller. 6.7.5 Battery Bank. 6.8 Applications of Photovoltaic Solar Energy. 6.8.1 Residential and Public Illumination. 6.8.2 Stroboscopic Signaling. 6.8.3 Electric Fence. 6.8.4 Telecommunications. 6.8.5 Water Supply and Micro-Irrigation Systems. 6.8.6 Control of Plagues and Conservation of Food and Medicine. 6.8.7 Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis. 6.8.8 Electric Power Supply. 6.8.9 Security and Alarm Systems. 6.9 Economical Analysis of Solar Energy. References. 7. POWER PLANTS WITH FUEL CELLS. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 The Fuel Cell. 7.3 Commercial Technologies for Generation of Electricity. 7.4 Practical Issues Related to Fuel Cell Stacking. 7.4.1 Low- and High-Temperature Fuel Cells. 7.4.2 Commercial and Manufacturing Issues. 7.5 Constructional Features of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. 7.6 Constructional Features of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. 7.7 Water, Air, and Heat Management. 7.8 :oad Curve Peak Shaving with Fuel Cells. 7.8.1 Maximal Load Curve Flatness at Constant Output Power. 7.8.2 Amount of Thermal Energy Necessary. 7.9 Reformers, Electrolyzer Systems, and Related Precautions. 7.10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuel Cells. 7.11 Fuel Cell Equivalent Circuit. 7.12 Practical Determination of the Equivalent Model Parameters. 7.12.1 Example of Determination of FC Parameters. 7.13 Aspects of Hydrogen as Fuel. 7.14 Future Perspectives. References. 8. BIOMASS-POWERED MICROPLANTS. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Fuel from Biomass. 8.3 Biogas. 8.4 Biomass for Biogas. 8.5 Biological Formation of Biogas. 8.6 Factors Affecting Biodigestion. 8.7 Characteristics of Biodigesters. 8.8 Construction of Biodigester. 8.8.1 Sizing a Biodigester. 8.9 Generation of Electricity Using Biogas. References. 9. MICROTURBINES. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Princples of Operation. 9.3 Microturbine Fuel. 9.4 Control of Microturbines. 9.4.1 Mechanical-Side Structure. 9.4.2 Electrical-Side Structure. 9.4.3 Control-Side Structure. 9.5 Efficiency and Power of Microturbines. 9.6 Site Assessment for Installation of Microturbines. References. 10. INDUCTION GENERATORS. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Principles of Operation. 10.3 Representation of Steady-State Operation. 10.4 Power and Losses Generated. 10.5 Self-Excited Induction Generator. 10.6 Magnetizing Curves and Self-Excitation. 10.7 Mathematical Description of the Self-Excitation Process. 10.8 Interconnected and Stand-Alone Operation. 10.9 Speed and Voltage Control. 10.9.1 Frequency, Speed, and Voltage Controls. 10.9.2 Load Control Versus Source Control for Induction Generators. 10.9.3 The Danish Concept. 10.9.4 Variable-Speed Grid Connection. 10.9.5 Control by the Load Versus Control by the Source. 10.10 Economical Aspects. References. 11. STORAGE SYSTEMS. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Energy Storage Parameters. 11.3 Lead-Acid Batteries. 11.3.1 Constructional Features. 11.3.2 Battery Charge-Discharge Cycles. 11.3.3 Operating Limits and Parameters. 11.3.4 Maintenance of Lead-Acid Batteries. 11.3.5 Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for DG Applications. 11.4 Ultracapacitors. 11.4.1 Double-Layer Ultracapacitors. 11.4.2 High-Energy Ultracapacitors. 11.4.3 Applications of Ultracapacitors. 11.5 Flywheels. 11.5.1 Advanced Performance of Flywheels. 11.5.2 Applications of Flywheels. 11.5.3 Design Strategies. 11.6 Superconducting Magnetic Storage System. 11.6.1 SMES System Capabilities. 11.6.2 Developments in SMES Systems. 11.7 Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage. 11.7.1 Storage Capabilities of Pumped Systems. 11.8 Compressed Air Energy Storage. 11.9 Storage Heat. 11.10 Energy Storage as an Economic Resource. References. 12 INTEGRATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Principles of Power Injection. 12.2.1 Converting Technologies. 12.2.2 Power Converters for Power Injection into the Grid. 12.2.3 Power Flow. 12.3 Instantaneous Active and Reactive Power Control Approach. 12.4 Integration of Multiple Renewable Energy Sources. 12.4.1 DC-Link Integration. 12.4.2 AC-Link Integration. 12.4.3 HFAC-Link Integration. 12.5 Islanding and Interconnection Control. 12.6 DG Control and Power Injection. References. 13. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 The Purpose of Distributed Generation. 13.3 Sizing and Siting of Distributed Generation. 13.4 Demand-Side Management. 13.5 Optimal Location of Distributed Energy Sources. 13.5.1 DG Influence on Power and Energy Losses. 13.5.2 Estimation of DG Influence on Power Losses of Subtransmission Systems. 13.5.3 Equivalent of Subtransmission Systems Using Experimental Design. 13.6 Algorithm of Multicriterial Analysis. References. 14. INTERCONNECTION OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES WITH THE GRID (Benjamin Kroposki, Thomas Basso, Richard DeBlasio, and N. Richard Friedman). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Interconnection Technologies. 14.2.1 Synchronous Interconnection. 14.2.2 Induction Interconnection. 14.2.3 Inverter Interconnection. 14.3 Standards and Codes for Interconnection. 14.3.1 IEEE 1547. 14.3.2 National Electrical Code. 14.3.3 UL Standards. 14.4 Interconnection Considerations. 14.4.1 Voltage Regulation. 14.4.2 Integration with Area EPS Grounding. 14.4.3 Synchronization. 14.4.4 Isolation. 14.4.5 Response to Voltage Disturbance. 14.4.6 Response to Frequency Disturbance. 14.4.7 Disconnection for Faults. 14.4.8 Loss of Synchronism. 14.4.9 Feeder Reclosing Coordination. 14.4.10 DC Injection. 14.4.11 Voltage Flicker. 14.4.12 Harmonics. 14.4.13 Unintentional Islanding Protection. 14.5 Interconnection Examples for Alternative Energy Sources. 14.5.1 Synchronous Generator for Peak Demand Reduction. 14.5.2 Small Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System. References. 15. MICROPOWER SYSTEM MODELING WITH HOMER (Tom Lambert, Paul Gilman, and Peter Lilienthal). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Simulation. 15.3 Optimization. 15.4 Sensitivity Analysis. 15.4.1 Dealing with Uncertainty. 15.4.2 Sensitivity Analyses on Hourly Data Sets. 15.5 Physical Modeling. 15.5.1 Loads. 15.5.2 Resources. 15.5.3 Components. 15.5.4 System Dispatch. 15.6 Economic Modeling. References. Glossary. APPENDIX A: DIESEL POWER PLANTS. A.1 Introduction. A.2 Diesel Engine. A.3 Principal Components of a Diesel Engine. A.3.1 Fixed Parts. A.3.2 Moving Parts. A.3.3 Auxiliary Systems. A.4 Terminology of Diesel Engines. A.4.1 Diesel Cycle. A.4.2 Combustion Process. A.5 Diesel Engine Cycle. A.5.1 Relative Diesel Engine Cycle Losses. A.5.2 Classification of Diesel Engines. A.6 Types of Fuel Injection Pumps. A.7 Electrical Conditions of Generators Driven by Diesel Engines. References. APPENDIX B: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. B.1 Introduction. B.2 Geothermal as a Source of Energy. B.2.1 Geothermal Economics. B.2.2 Geothermal Electricity. B.2.3 Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps. References. APPENDIX C: THE STIRLING ENGINE. C.1 Introduction. C.2 Stirling Cycle. C.3 Displacer Stirling Engine. C.4 Two-Piston Stirling Engine. References. INDEX.

About the Author

FELIX A. FARRET, PhD, is Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Federal University of Santa Maria. Dr. Farret received a CAPES fellowship from the Brazilian government for his research in fuel cells and alternative sources of energy as part of a joint program between the Colorado School of Mines-Engineering Division and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. M. GODOY SIMOES, PhD, Livre-Docente, is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines. He is a recipient of a National Science Foundation Faculty Early CAREER Development Award. He served as Program Chair of IEEE PESC 2005, General Chair of IEEE PEEW 2005, and is currently serving as Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics as well as Secretary of the IEEE IAS Industrial Automation and Control Committee.


" attractive reference book for research, consulting and development engineers...also, it can be university." (IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Newsletter, March 2006)

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