Topics: Academic Freedom Edward Shils. The Academic Profession Philip G Altbach. Accountability Klaus Hufner. The Costs of Higher Education D Bruce Johnstone. The Expansion of Higher Education Franciso O Ramirez and Phyllis Riddle. Foreign Students William K Cummings. Graudate Education Gary Rhoades. Higher Education and the Labor Market Bikas C Sanyal. History of Universities Harold Perkin. New Universities: Their Origins and Strategic Development John L Davies. Private Higher Education Roger L Geiger. Student Political Activism Philip G Altbach. University Reform Philip G Altbach. University Research and the Development of Scientific Capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia Thomas O Eisemon and Charles H Davis. Women and Higher Education Gail P Kelly. Regions and Countries. Africa. The Development of University Education in Sub-Saharan Africa David Court. Francophone West Africa Milton N Adams, Ibrahima Bah-Lalya and Mwenene Mukweso. Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia Richard Sack. Kenya Rees Hughes and Kilemi Mwiria. Nigeria Karen Biraimah. South Africa Johan Muller. Tanzania T L Maliyamkono. Zimbabwe Ngoni Chideya. Asia. People's Republic of China Hubert O Brown. India Sureshchandra Shukla. Indonesia Donald R Snodgrass. Japan Kazuyuki Kitamura. Republic of Korea Ransoo Kim. Malaysia Jasbir Sarjit Singh. Pakistan Shakrukh R Khan. Philippines Andrew Gonzalez. Taiwan Shun-fen Chen. Thailand Keith Watson. Turkey Tokay Gedikoglu.