Chapter 1 - Thinking and Caring About World PoliticsPreviewing the Global DramaGlobal Actors: Meet the CastAlternative Approaches to World PoliticsThe Importance of World Politics to Each of UsWorld Politics and Your FinancesInternational Trade and Your FinancesThe Flow of International Capital and Your FinancesDefense Spending and Your FinancesWorld Politics and Your Living SpaceWorld Politics and Your LifeTransmational DiseasesTransnational Political ViolenceYou Can Make a DifferenceTaking Direct ActionVotingBecoming a Policy MakerThinking Theoretically: Putting World Events in ContextRealist TheoryClassic Realism and NeorealismRealism: An Emphasis on PowerRealism and the Competitive FutureLiberal TheoryClassic Liberalism and NeoliberalismLiberalism: An Emphasis on CooperationLiberalism and the Cooperative FuturePostmodernist, Feminist, and Economic TheoriesPostmodernist TheoryFeminist TheoryEconomic TheoriesConstructivist TheoryConstructivism and the Nature of PoliticsConstructivism and the Course of World PoliticsAssessing TheoriesChapter SummaryChapter 2 - The Evolution of World PoliticsThe Evolving World System: Early DevelopmentAncient Greece and RomeAfter the Fall of Rome, A.D. 476 to 1700Universal Authority in the Middle AgesLocal Authority in the Middle AgesThe Decline of the Feudal SystemThe Decline of Universalistic AuthorityThe Emergence of the Sovereign StateThe 18th and 19th CenturiesThe Evolving World System: The Twentieth CenturyThe Rise and Deline of the Bipolar SystemThe end of the Bipolar SystemThe Twenty-First Century: The Genesis of a New SystemThe Polar Power Structure in the Twenty-First CenturyA Unipolar MomentThe Multipolar UrgeLimited UnipolarityFuture PolarityOther Power Changes in the Twenty-First CenturyThe Weakening Western Orientation of the International SystemChallenges to the Authority of the StateSecurity in the Twenty-First CenturyGlobal Economics in the 21st CenturyEconomic IndependenceEconomic Disparity between North and SouthQuality of Life in the 21st CenturyHuman RightsThe EnvironmentChapter SummaryChapter 3 - Levels of Analysis and Foreign PolicyIndividual-Level AnalysisHumans as a SpeciesCognitive FactorsEmotional FactorsPsychological FactorsBiological FactorsGenderOrganizational BehaviorRole BehaviorDecision-Making Behavior within OrganizationsLeaders and Their Individual TraitsPersonalityPhysical and Mental HealthEgo and AmbitionPolitical History and Personal ExperiencesPerceptions and Operational RealityPolicy as a Mix of Rational and Irrational FactorsState-Level AnalysisMaking Foreign Policy: Type of Government, Situation, and PolicyType of Government and the Foreign Policy ProcessType of Situation and the Foreign Policy ProcessType of Policy and the Foreign Policy ProcessMaking Foreign Policy: Political CultureForeign Policy-Making ActorsSystem-Level AnalysisStructural CharacteristicsThe Organization of AuthorityScope, Level, and Intensity of InteractionsPower RelationshipsThe Number of Powerful ActorsThe Context of PowerEconomic RealitiesNorms Chapter SummaryChapter 4 - Nationalism: The Traditional OrientationUnderstanding Nations, Nationalism, and Nation-StatesNations, Nationalism, and Nation-States DefinedNationsNationalismNation-StatesThe Rise of Ascendancy of NationalismEarly NationalismAscendant Modern NationalismPatterns of Nation-State FormationNationalism in Practice: Issues and EvaluationNation-States: More Myth than RealityOne State, One NationOne State, Multiple NationsOne Nation, Multiple StatesOne Nation, No StateMultiple Nations, Multiple StatesPositive and Negative Aspects of NationalismPositive NationalismNegative NationalismSelf-Determination as a GoalPositive Aspects of Self-DeterminationConcerns about Self-DeterminationNationalism and the FutureThe Recent Past and Present of NationalismThe Predicted Demise of NationalismPersistent NationalismThe Future of NationalismChapter SummaryChapter 5 - Globalization: The Alternative OrientationGlobalismGlobalizationGlobalization of Transportation and CommunicationsGlobal TransportationGlobal CommunicationsEconomic GlobalizationCultural GlobalizationLanguageConsumer ProductsEvaluating GlobalizationArguments for Economic GlobalizationConcerns about Economic GlobalizationConcerns about Cultural GlobalizationTransnationalismTransnational OrganizationsThe Growth of NGOsThe Activities of NGOsThe Impact of NGOsRegional TransnationalismCultural TransnationalismTransnational ReligionReligion and World PoliticsThe Strength of Religious FundamentalismIslam and the WorldThe Political Heritage of MuslimsIslam and NationalismIslam and the Non-Islamic WorldTransnational MovementsWomen in the WorldGoals of the Transnational Women's MovementOrganization of the Transnational Women's MovementAdvances in Women in PoliticsThe Future of Transnationalism Chapter SummaryChapter 6 - Power, Statecraft, and the National State: The Traditional StructureThe Nature and Purpose of the StateThe State DefinedSovereigntyTerritoryPopulationDiplomatic RecognitionInternal OrganizationDomestic SupportPurposes of the StateHow States Are GovernedAuthoritarian GovernmentDemocratic GovernmentDemocracy and SecurityThe Complex Nature of PowerPower as an Asset and GoalHard and Soft PowerAbsolute and Relative PowerPower as Capacity and WillSituational PowerPower DynamicsThe Diplomatic InstrumentDiplomacy as Applied PowerMultilateral DiplomacyLeader-to-Leader DiplomacyDemocratized DiplomacyParliamentary DiplomacyOpen DiplomacyDiplomacy as a Communications ProcessConducting DiplomacyDirect or Indirect NegotiationsHigh-Level or Low-Level DiplomacyUsing Coercion or RewardsBeing Precise or Intentionally VagueCommunicating by Word or DeeLinking Issues or Treating Them SeparatelyMaximizing or Minimizing a DisputeThe Informational InstrumentStates and the FutureThe State: Changing StatusThe State: The IndictmentStates Are ObsoleteStates Are DestructiveThe State: The DefenseThe State: The VerdictChapter SummaryChapter 7 - Intergovernmental Organizations: Alternative GovernanceAn Overview of Intergovernmental OrganizationsHistory of IGOsTheories of IGO FormationThe Growth of IGOsReasons for GrowthRoles the IGOs PlayInteractive ArenaCenter of CooperationIndependent International ActorSupranational OrganizationGlobal IGOs: Focus on the United NationsMembership and VotingMembership IssuesVoting IssuesLeadershipThe Selection of IGO LeadersThe Role of IGO LeadersAdministration, and FinanceAdministrationFinanceActivities of the UN and Other IGOsActivities Promoting Peace and SecuritySocial, Economic, Environmental, and Other ActivitiesEvaluating Global IGOs Regional IGOs: Focus on the European UnionThe Origins and Evolution of the European UnionEconomic IntegrationPolitical IntegrationGovernance of the European UnionPolitical LeadershipBureaucracyOversight AgenciesLegislatureJudiciaryThe Future of the EUCampaign for a ConstitutionReflecting on the EU's FutureChapter SummaryChapter 8 - International Law and Human RightsFundamentals of International Law and Justice The Primitive Nature of International Law The Growth of International LawCurrent Perspectives The Practice of International Law International Law and PoliticsThe Fundamentals of International JusticeThe International Legal System The Philosophical Roots of Law How International Law is Made The Sources of LawAdherence to the Law Compliance with the LawEnforcement of the LawAdjudication of the LawInternational CourtsJurisdiction of International CourtsEffectiveness of International CourtsApplying International Law and Justice"Just War" Theory Just Cause of WarJust Conduct of WarApplying International Law and Justice to Individuals Post-World War II TribunalsCurrent International TribunalsThe International Criminal CourtHuman Rights Issues and OrganizationsChanging Trends in Human RightsThe Nature of Human RightsProscriptive and Prescriptive Human Rights Universal and Culture-Based RightsApplying Universalism and RelativismIndividual and Community RightsCurrent Issues in Human RightsHuman Rights ProblemsHuman Rights ProgressHuman Rights TreatiesBarriers to Progress on Human RightsThe Future of International Law and Justice Chapter SummaryChapter 9 - Pursuing SecurityThinking about SecurityA Tale of InsecurityCritiquing the DramaConflict and Insecurity: The Traditional RoadWar and World PoliticsThe Causes of War: Three Levels of AnalysisSystem-Level Causes of WarState-Level Causes of WarIndividual-Level Causes of WarTerrorismThe Nature and Limits of TerrorismSources of TerrorismThe Record of TerrorismTerrorist Weapons and TacticsThe Causes of TerrorismCombating TerrorismUnconventional ForceArms Transfers: Where and WhyArms Transfers: DrawbacksSpecial OperationsConventional ForceGoals and Conduct of WarAvoiding Unchecked EscalationWeapons of Mass DestructionBiological WeaponsChemical WeaponsNuclear WeaponsGlobal and International Security: The Alternative RoadLimited Self-Defense Through Arms ControlMethods of Achieving Arms ControlThe Barriers to Arms ControlInternational Security ForcesInternational Security Forces: Theory and PracticePeacekeepingInternational Security and the FutureAbolition of WarComplete DisarmamentPacifismChapter SummaryChapter 10 - National Economic Competition: The Traditional RoadTheories of International Political EconomyEconomic NationalismEconomic InternationalismEconomic StructuralismThe World Economy: Globalization and InterdependenceTradeExpanding TradeFactors Promoting Expanding TradeInternational InvestmentForeign Direct and Portfolio InvestmentInternational Investment and Multinational CorporationsMonetary RelationsThe World Economy: Diverse CircumstancesNorth-South PatternsNorth-South Economic PatternsNorth-South Societal PatternsEvaluating the North-South GapMixed Data on DevelopmentUneven Patterns of DevelopmentNational Economic RelationsNorth-North Economic RelationsChanges in the North's Economic ClimateChanges in the North's Political ClimateNorth-South Economic RelationsThe South's Reform AgendaThe North's Response to the South's Reform AgendaNew Developments in the North-South CompetitionSouth-South Economic RelationsApplied Economic NationalismUsing Economic Means to Achieve Economic EndsTrade and Investment BarriersTrade and Investment SupportsUsing Economic Means to Achieve Political EndsThe Future of Economic Nationalist PolicyChapter SummaryChapter 11 - International Economics: The Alternative RoadEconomic Cooperation and Development: Background and RequirementsThe Origins of Economic CooperationDevelopment of the SouthEconomic Cooperation and Development: The InstitutionsThe United Nations and Economic CooperationThe UN and Global Economic RegulationThe UN and DevelopmentTrade Cooperation and Development: The WTOThe Structure and Role of the WTORevising the GATT: The Doha RoundMonetary Cooperation in Support of Development: The IMFThe Role of the IMFCriticisms of the IMFDefense of the IMFDevelopment Cooperation: The World Bank GroupWorld Bank OperationsControversy about the World Bank GroupEconomic Cooperation and Development: EDC InstitutionsOrganization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentThe Group of Eight (G-8)Regional and Bilateral Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentThe Western HemisphereThe North American Free Trade AgreementThe Free Trade Area of the AmericasMercosurAsia and the PacificOther RegionsBilateral Trade AgreementsCooperation and Development: Debating the FutureThe Case for Economic InternationalismEconomic AdvantagesNoneconomic AdvantagesThe Case for Economic NationalismEconomic AdvantagesNoneconomic AdvantagesThe Globalization Debate in PerspectiveChapter SummaryChapter 12 - Preserving and Enhancing the BiosphereThe Ecological State of the WorldSustainable Development The Conundrum of Sustainable DevelopmentOption 1: Restrict/Rollback DevelopmentOption 2: Pay for Environmentally Sustainable DevelopmentThe Politics of Sustainable DevelopmentEarth Summit IEarth Summit IISustainable Development: Population Problems and ProgressGlobal Recognition of the Population ProblemApproaches to Reducing the BirthrateThe Impact of International Population Control EffortsSustainable Development: Resource Problems and ProgressPetroleum, Natural Gas, and MineralsForests and LandForest DepletionLand DegradationForest and Land ProtectionWildlifeGlobal Pressure on WildlifeProtecting WildlifeFreshwaterThe Seas and FisheriesPressures on the Seas and FisheriesProtecting FisheriesSustainable Development: The EnvironmentGround QualityInternational Ground Quality IssuesInternational Efforts to Protect Ground QualityWater QualityInternational Water Quality IssuesInternational Efforts to Protect Water QualityAir QualityInternational Air Quality IssuesProtecting Air QualityThe Ozone LayerOzone Layer DepletionProtecting the Ozone LayerGlobal WarmingGlobal Warming: What We KnowGlobal Warming: What Is in DisputeThe International Response to Global WarmingChapter SummaryAn Epilogue to the Text/A Prologue to the FutureEndnotesGlossaryReferencesIndex
John T. Rourke, Ph.D., professor emeritus, is former head of the Department of Political Science at The University of Connecticut. He is author of International Politics on the World Stage, Eleventh Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2007); the author of Presidential Wars and American Democracy: Rally Round the Chief (Paragon House, 1993); a coauthor of Direct Democracy and International Politics: Deciding International Issues through Referendums (Lynn Rienner, 1992); the editor of Taking Sides: Clashing Views in World Politics, Twelfth Edition, expanded (McGraw-Hill, 2007) and You Decide: Current Debates in American Politics (Longman, 2005); the author of Making Foreign Policy: United States, Soviet Union, China (Brooks Cole, 1990), Congress and the Presidency in U.S. Foreign Policymaking (Westview, 1985), and numerous articles and papers. He continues to teach and especially enjoys introductory classes. His regard for the students has molded his approach to writinghe conveys scholarship in a language and within a frame of reference that undergraduates can appreciate. Rourke believes, as the theme of this book reflects, that politics affect us all and we can affect politics. Rourke practices what he propounds; his career long involved the universitys internship program and advising one of its political clubs. Additionally, he has served as a staff member of Connecticuts legislature, and has been involved in political campaigns on the local, state, and national levels. Mark A. Boyer, Ph.D. is a professor of political science at The University of Connecticut. He received the 2004 UConn Alumni Association Award for Excellence in Teaching at the Graduate Level, the American Political Science Associations 2000 Rowman & Littlefield Award for Innovation in the Teaching of Political Science, and the 2001 UConn Chancellors Information Technology Award. He is coauthor with Davis B. Bobrow of Defensive Internationalism (University of Michigan Press, 2005), coauthor with Brigid Starkey and Jonathan Wilkenfeld of Negotiating a Complex World (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), and author of International Cooperation and Public Goods (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993). He has also published numerous articles in such journals as the Journal of Conflict Resolution, Simulation and Games, Journal of Peace Research, Review of International Political Economy, Diplomacy and Statecraft, Instructional Science, and others. Boyer is co-director of the GlobalEd Project (www.globaled.uconn.edu), which conducts computer-assisted international studies simulations for middle school and high school students throughout the United States. In 199293 he was a Pew Faculty Fellow in International Affairs, and from 1986 to 1988, an SSRC-MacArthur Fellow in International Peace and Security Studies. A strong proponent of active forms of learning, Boyer applies a wide mix of teaching approaches, ranging from case teaching to various types of simulations. His emphasis on active learning is reflected throughout this book and also in the Web site that accompanies the book.